Les systèmes d’information recherche : un nouvel objet du questionnement éthique

Auteur/Authors : Joachim Schöpfel, Otmane Azeroual

La politique en faveur de la science ouverte interroge les critères et les procédures de l’évaluation de la recherche, tout en mettant en avant les principes fondamentaux de l’éthique scientifique, comme la transparence, l’ouverture et l’intégrité.

Dans ce contexte, nous menons depuis 2020 une analyse de la dimension éthique des systèmes d’information consacrés à l’évaluation de la recherche (SI recherche).

Cet article présente les résultats d’une enquête internationale conduite en 2021 avec un petit échantillon de professionnels et de chercheurs sur deux aspects : l’éthique comme objet du modèle de données de ces systèmes (métriques), et l’aspect éthique de la mise en place et de l’utilisation de ces systèmes.

La discussion fait le lien avec la qualité de ces systèmes, insiste sur la distinction entre l’évaluation des institutions et des personnes et propose l’analyse de ces systèmes à partir du concept d’une responsabilité morale répartie des infrastructures éthiques (infraéthique).

DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/rfsic.13254

Putting FAIR principles in the context of research information: FAIRness for CRIS and CRIS for FAIRness

Authors : Otmane Azeroual, Joachim Schöpfel, Janne Pölönen, Anastasija Nikiforova

Digitization in the research domain refers to the increasing integration and analysis of research information in the process of research data management. However, it is not clear whether it is used and, more importantly, whether the data are of sufficient quality, and value and knowledge could be extracted from them.

FAIR principles (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, Reusability) represent a promising asset to achieve this. Since their publication, they have rapidly proliferated and have become part of (inter-)national research funding programs.

A special feature of the FAIR principles is the emphasis on the legibility, readability, and understandability of data. At the same time, they pose a prerequisite for data for their reliability, trustworthiness, and quality. In this sense, the importance of applying FAIR principles to research information and respective systems such as Current Research Information Systems (CRIS), which is an underrepresented subject for research, is the subject of the paper.

Supporting the call for the need for a ”one-stop-shop and register-onceuse-many approach”, we argue that CRIS is a key component of the research infrastructure landscape, directly targeted and enabled by operational application and the promotion of FAIR principles.

We hypothesize that the improvement of FAIRness is a bidirectional process, where CRIS promotes FAIRness of data and infrastructures, and FAIR principles push further improvements to the underlying CRIS.

URL https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03836525

A Scientific Knowledge Graph with Community Detection and Routes of Search. Testing “GRAPHYP” as a Toolkit for Resilient Upgrade of Scholarly Content

Authors : Renaud Fabre, Otmane Azeroual, Patrice Bellot, Joachim Schöpfel, Daniel Egret

Unlimited change in scientific terminology challenges integrity in scientific knowledge graph (SKG) representation, while current data and modeling standards, mostly document oriented, hardly allow a resilient semantic upgrade of scholarly content.

Moreover, results of a “multimodal knowledge acquisition” are required for an efficient upgrade of search methods: « vital nodes » differ among users of the same keyword, due to distinct needs of scientific communities, rooted in their own interpretations and controversies.

Modeling and data are challenged to propose new outcomes, mixing automated information and human choices allowing dynamic community detection: to fulfill this program with GRAPHYP toolkit, we identify a workflow ensuring the objectives of integrity and completeness of search management activities.

It encompasses data standards for « routes » of search, modeling of community detection and navigation inside SK bipartite hypergraph, and a first test with extraction of characteristics of communities’ preferences from readings of scholarly content.

“Search is not Research” and therefore further work should explore the links between modeling and data recording research contents and “search and select” results in SKG data structure.

URL : A Scientific Knowledge Graph with Community Detection and Routes of Search. Testing “GRAPHYP” as a Toolkit for Resilient Upgrade of Scholarly Content

Original location : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03365118

Evaluating the scientific impact of research infrastructures: The role of current research information systems

Authors : Renaud Fabre, Daniel Egret, Joachim Schöpfel, Otmane Azeroual

Research infrastructures (RI) offer researchers a multitude of research opportunities and services and play a key role in the performance, innovative strength, and international competitiveness of science. As an important part of the generation and use of new knowledge and technologies, they are essential for research policies.

Because of their strategic importance and their need for significant funding, there is a growing demand for the assessment of their scientific output and impact. Current research information systems (CRIS) have contributed for many years now to the evaluation of universities and research organizations.

Based on studies on the application of CRIS to infrastructures and on a recent French report on the scientometric assessment of RI, this paper analyzes the potential of CRIS and their data models and standards (in particular the international CERIF format and the German RDC model) for the monitoring and evaluation of RI.

The interaction between functional specificities of RI and standards for their assessment is outlined, with reference to their own potential to stimulate and share innovation in the networks located inside and outside RI.

This societal challenge, more than an academic issue, is on the way to further harmonization and consolidation of shared and common RI metrics.

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1162/qss_a_00111

Text data mining and data quality management for research information systems in the context of open data and open science

Authors : Otmane Azeroual, Gunter Saake, Mohammad Abuosba, Joachim Schöpfel

In the implementation and use of research information systems (RIS) in scientific institutions, text data mining and semantic technologies are a key technology for the meaningful use of large amounts of data.

It is not the collection of data that is difficult, but the further processing and integration of the data in RIS. Data is usually not uniformly formatted and structured, such as texts and tables that cannot be linked.

These include various source systems with their different data formats such as project and publication databases, CERIF and RCD data model, etc. Internal and external data sources continue to develop.

On the one hand, they must be constantly synchronized and the results of the data links checked. On the other hand, the texts must be processed in natural language and certain information extracted.

Using text data mining, the quality of the metadata is analyzed and this identifies the entities and general keywords. So that the user is supported in the search for interesting research information.

The information age makes it easier to store huge amounts of data and increase the number of documents on the internet, in institutions’ intranets, in newswires and blogs is overwhelming.

Search engines should help to specifically open up these sources of information and make them usable for administrative and research purposes. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of text data mining techniques and the management of successful data quality for RIS in the context of open data and open science in scientific institutions and libraries, as well as to provide ideas for their application. In particular, solutions for the RIS will be presented.

URL : https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.04298