Practices and Attitudes of the Research and Teaching Staff at the University of Split about the Online Encyclopedia Wikipedia

Author : Mirko Duić

The goal of this study was to investigate the practices and attitudes of the research and teaching staff at the University of Split (Croatia) about the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The method of a questionnaire-based survey was used to gain insights related to this topic. During February 2024, the survey was completed by 226 respondents.

The results show that almost all respondents read Wikipedia articles and believe that the level of their accuracy is quite high. Almost half of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that it would be desirable for faculty staff to write Wikipedia articles with the aim of spreading knowledge about topics from their professional fields.

However, a very small number of respondents participated in writing articles for Wikipedia. Also, the respondents answered that to them, the greatest motivations to write articles on Wikipedia would be if this activity were evaluated for the advancement to a higher work position and the correction of errors in Wikipedia articles.

It was also found that most respondents are not very familiar with how Wikipedia works or how to add new content to it. These and other insights from this study can be used to conceive and initiate various activities that can contribute to greater participation of scientific and teaching staff of higher education institutions in writing quality content on Wikipedia, as well as activities that can contribute to a better familiarization with the principles and procedures to write and enhance its content.

Other research methods, such as interviews with scientific and teaching staff of higher education institutions, could be used to acquire further, more detailed answers related to this topic.

URL : Practices and Attitudes of the Research and Teaching Staff at the University of Split about the Online Encyclopedia Wikipedia

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The promotion and implementation of open science measures among high-performing journals from Brazil, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain

Authors : Chris Fradkin, Rogério Mugnaini

This study empirically examined the promotion and implementation of open science measures among high-performing journals of Brazil, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain. Journal policy related to data sharing, materials sharing, preregistration, open peer review, and consideration of preprints and replication studies was gathered from the websites of the journals.

Four hundred articles were coded for the inclusion of data availability statements, conflict of interest disclosures, funding disclosures, DOI, ORCID, and continuous publishing. Analyses found a higher promotion of open science measures among Brazilian journals than their Portuguese counterparts, and higher promotion of open science measures among international journals than their domestic counterparts.

Analyses found higher implementation of open science measures among Brazilian journals than their Portuguese and Mexican counterparts. One journal out of 40 encouraged preregistration of studies; none encouraged replication studies and none had implemented open peer review.

These findings reveal reasonably strong implementation of secondary open science measures (e.g., DOI, ORCID, conflict of interest and funding source disclosure) among the sample, but weaker implementation of primary measures (e.g., open data, open materials, replication studies and open peer review).

The implications of these findings are considered and suggestions are made to bolster the adoption of open science measures among Ibero-American scientific journals.

URL : The promotion and implementation of open science measures among high-performing journals from Brazil, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain

Why academics under-share research data: A social relational theory

Authors : Janice Bially MatternJoseph KohlburnHeather Moulaison-Sandy

Despite their professed enthusiasm for open science, faculty researchers have been documented as not freely sharing their data; instead, if sharing data at all, they take a minimal approach. A robust research agenda in LIS has documented the data under-sharing practices in which they engage, and the motivations they profess.

Using theoretical frameworks from sociology to complement research in LIS, this article examines the broader context in which researchers are situated, theorizing the social relational dynamics in academia that influence faculty decisions and practices relating to data sharing.

We advance a theory that suggests that the academy has entered a period of transition, and faculty resistance to data sharing through foot-dragging is one response to shifting power dynamics. If the theory is borne out empirically, proponents of open access will need to find a way to encourage open academic research practices without undermining the social value of academic researchers.

URL : Why academics under-share research data: A social relational theory


The societal impact of Open Science: a scoping review

Authors : Nicki Lisa Cole, Eva Kormann, Thomas Klebel, Simon Apartis, Tony Ross-Hellauer

Open Science (OS) aims, in part, to drive greater societal impact of academic research. Government, funder and institutional policies state that it should further democratize research and increase learning and awareness, evidence-based policy-making, the relevance of research to society’s problems, and public trust in research. Yet, measuring the societal impact of OS has proven challenging and synthesized evidence of it is lacking.

This study fills this gap by systematically scoping the existing evidence of societal impact driven by OS and its various aspects, including Citizen Science (CS), Open Access (OA), Open/FAIR Data (OFD), Open Code/Software and others. Using the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews and searches conducted in Web of Science, Scopus and relevant grey literature, we identified 196 studies that contain evidence of societal impact. The majority concern CS, with some focused on OA, and only a few addressing other aspects.

Key areas of impact found are education and awareness, climate and environment, and social engagement. We found no literature documenting evidence of the societal impact of OFD and limited evidence of societal impact in terms of policy, health, and trust in academic research. Our findings demonstrate a critical need for additional evidence and suggest practical and policy implications.


Stratégies et comportements de communication scientifique de chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales face à l’évaluation de la recherche publique

Auteur/Author : Cheikh Ndiaye

Cette thèse se penche sur les enjeux de la communication et de l’évaluation dans le domaine de la recherche en Sciences de l’Information et de la Communication. Partant du principe que la science contribue au progrès d’une société en lui permettant de répondre à ses préoccupations (santé, économie, etc.), divers pays industrialisés comme la France investissent des sommes importantes pour son essor. Ces investissements suscitant, à leur tour, des prescrits afin d’en assurer une gestion efficiente et un impact en adéquation avec les objectifs de développement. Ainsi ont été institutionnalisées l’évaluation de la recherche publique et sa valorisation.

Leur montée en puissance a eu des effets bouleversants sur le paysage scientifique, notamment la gouvernance des universités, leurs missions et rapports au monde économique ou encore la production des connaissances. Au cœur de ses changements, l’évaluation impacte les orientations politiques autour de la recherche, en particulier le choix des priorités thématiques et la distribution des financements. Elle induit un besoin de valorisation individuelle qui semble obliger les chercheurs à intégrer davantage dans leurs activités la quête construite d’autorité, donc de reconnaissance scientifique.Ayant toujours été un régulateur de la compétition entre savants et un vecteur de diffusion de leurs connaissances produites, la communication scientifique est-elle devenue un outil de stratégie ?

Le but de cette recherche est de répondre à cette interrogation. En se fondant sur un modèle psychosociologique, la théorie du comportement planifié, il s’agit d’examiner la construction de ce changement comportemental éventuel, à partir de la motivation, de l’attitude, des perceptions des normes sociales et de la capacité à conduire le changement et l’intention comportementale. Il s’agit également de voir les liens existant entre ces variables et l’intention de s’adapter à l’évaluation, voire le comportement final adopté.

La première partie de l’étude pose les bases conceptuelles de la thèse en examinant les relations entre les Sciences Humaines et Sociales, l’espace scientifique, l’économie et les politiques publiques. Elle explore la dualité entre les SHS et les sciences exactes, ainsi que l’impact du numérique sur la recherche.

La deuxième partie se concentre sur le chercheur en tant que communicateur et objet d’évaluation. Elle aborde les différents moyens de communication scientifique, y compris les publications, les médias sociaux, et les médias alternatifs, ainsi que les enjeux sociaux de la communication dans le domaine académique.

La troisième et dernière partie examine le chercheur en tant qu’acteur central de la recherche. D’une part, elle se penche sur les aspects de l’évaluation de la recherche, notamment la bibliométrie et les classements universitaires. De l’autre, elle expose les théories du comportement humain, le modèle théorique et la méthodologie de la recherche. Ce qui permet de présenter les résultats de l’enquête par un questionnaire auprès des chercheurs.

En conclusion, l’étude met en évidence une perception contraignante de l’évaluation scientifique au-delà d’une incitation à publier. Elle apparaît, en effet, comme une obligation professionnelle dont l’inexécution peut avoir des effets néfastes sur la carrière.

Son attitude est plutôt favorable au changement, et les normes sociales perçues l’y poussent alors qu’il a confiance en ses capacités à intégrer les prescriptions dans sa stratégie de communication. De ce fait, le chercheur en SHS à l’intention de s’adapter en construisant une communication adaptative, en sélectionnant les prescrits lui convenant.

Au final, son comportement adopté consiste à élaborer une stratégie au cas par cas, basée sur la publication évaluée par les pairs afin d’obtenir divers bénéfices : visibilité et reconnaissance scientifiques, intégration sociale, accès aux médias et autorités politiques, responsabilités administratives ou scientifiques.


The oligopoly of academic publishers persists in exclusive database

Authors : Simon van Bellen, Juan Pablo Alperin, Vincent Larivière

Global scholarly publishing has been dominated by a small number of publishers for several decades. We aimed to revisit the debate on corporate control of scholarly publishing by analyzing the relative shares of major publishers and smaller, independent publishers. Using the Web of Science, Dimensions and OpenAlex, we managed to retrieve twice as many articles indexed in Dimensions and OpenAlex, compared to the rather selective Web of Science.

As a result of excluding smaller publishers, the ‘oligopoly’ of scholarly publishers persists, at least in appearance, according to the Web of Science. However, both Dimensions’ and OpenAlex’ inclusive indexing revealed the share of smaller publishers has been growing rapidly, especially since the onset of large-scale online publishing around 2000, resulting in a current cumulative dominance of smaller publishers.

While the expansion of small publishers was most pronounced in the social sciences and humanities, the natural and medical sciences showed a similar trend. A major geographical divergence is also revealed, with some countries, mostly Anglo-Saxon and/or located in northwestern Europe, relying heavily on major publishers for the dissemination of their research, while others being relatively independent of the oligopoly, such as those in Latin America, northern Africa, eastern Europe and parts of Asia.

The emergence of digital publishing, the reduction of expenses for printing and distribution and open-source journal management tools may have contributed to the emergence of small publishers, while the development of inclusive bibliometric databases has allowed for the effective indexing of journals and articles. We conclude that enhanced visibility to recently created, independent journals may favour their growth and stimulate global scholarly bibliodiversity.

Arxiv :

An empirical examination of data reuser trust in a digital repository

Authors : Elizabeth Yakel, Ixchel M. Faniel, Lionel P. Robert Jr

Most studies of trusted digital repositories have focused on the internal factors delineated in the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model—organizational structure, technical infrastructure, and policies, procedures, and processes.

Typically, these factors are used during an audit and certification process to demonstrate a repository can be trusted. The factors influencing a repository’s designated community of users to trust it remains largely unexplored.

This article proposes and tests a model of trust in a data repository and the influence trust has on users’ intention to continue using it. Based on analysis of 245 surveys from quantitative social scientists who published research based on the holdings of one data repository, findings show three factors are positively related to data reuser trust—integrity, identification, and structural assurance.

In turn, trust and performance expectancy are positively related to data reusers’ intentions to return to the repository for more data. As one of the first studies of its kind, it shows the conceptualization of trusted digital repositories needs to go beyond high-level definitions and simple application of the OAIS standard.

Trust needs to encompass the complex trust relationship between designated communities of users that the repositories are being built to serve.

URL : Asso for Info Science Tech – 2024 – Yakel – An empirical examination of data reuser trust in a digital repository