De l’héritage épistémologique de Paul Otlet à une théorie relationnelle de l’organisation des connaissances

Auteur/Author : Arthur Perret

Cette thèse porte sur la relation entre le travail intellectuel et son outillage, à travers une étude de l’héritage épistémologique de Paul Otlet (1868-1944), le premier théoricien de la documentation. Elle traite du problème de l’organisation et de la gestion des connaissances savantes sous l’angle de la documentation personnelle.

Il s’agit à la fois d’un travail théorique en documentologie et en organisation des connaissances, et d’un travail réflexif basé sur la conception et l’utilisation d’un outil de visualisation de graphe documentaire nommé Cosma.

À travers l’analyse des écrits, schémas et réalisations documentaires d’Otlet, nous établissons que la logique de réseau qu’il propose n’est pas seulement de nature institutionnelle mais qu’elle s’applique également aux documents eux-mêmes. Nous reprenons une hypothèse émise par W. Boyd Rayward, jamais éprouvée, et qui consiste à établir un parallèle entre les composants fondamentaux du travail d’Otlet (principe monographique, classification décimale universelle) et ceux des systèmes hypertextuels (nœuds, liens).

Nous vérifions empiriquement ce parallèle en nous appuyant sur les réalisations du programme ANR HyperOtlet, et nous le généralisons à la notion de graphe pour proposer les éléments d’une théorie relationnelle de l’organisation des connaissances.

Nous caractérisons l’épistémologie de la documentation personnelle hypertextuelle comme réflexive et heuristique : la représentation du graphe met en évidence la nature réticulaire de certains processus d’écriture et, par là, de pensée ; elle sert d’aide-mémoire, avec une logique d’émergence informationnelle.

À partir de ce travail, nous proposons la notion de cosmographie comme mise en ordre d’un univers intellectuel par l’écriture, entre idiotexte (écriture comme mémoire prothétique singulière), hypertexte (écriture réticulaire) et architexte (écriture de l’écriture).


Knowledge Management and Electronic Theses and Dissertations in Libraries: Perils and Solutions in Indian Perspective


“ICT is a great facilitator for Knowledge Management. ICT enables creation of digital repositories for sharing knowledge transcending many limitations. Digital Repository (DR) is one of the components of KM in Libraries. DR of in-house research is becoming a priority item in universities and research institutions. The paper highlights the major challenges in creating a DR of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) for university/research institution. Discusses the constraints on ETD initiatives and possible solutions. Suggests that LIS professionals should up problem-solving steps based on research in the area of KM in Libraries.”


Common Errors in Ecological Data Sharing Objectives…


Common Errors in Ecological Data Sharing :

Objectives: (1) to identify common errors in data organization and metadata completeness that would preclude a “reader” from being able to interpret and re-use the data for a new purpose; and (2) to develop a set of best practices derived from these common errors that would guide researchers in creating more usable data products that could be readily shared, interpreted, and used.
Methods: We used directed qualitative content analysis to assess and categorize data and metadata errors identified by peer reviewers of data papers published in the Ecological Society of America’s (ESA) Ecological Archives. Descriptive statistics provided the relative frequency of the errors identified during the peer review process.
Results: There were seven overarching error categories: Collection & Organization, Assure, Description, Preserve, Discover, Integrate, and Analyze/Visualize. These categories represent errors researchers regularly make at each stage of the Data Life Cycle. Collection & Organization and Description errors were some of the most common errors, both of which occurred in over 90% of the papers.
Conclusions: Publishing data for sharing and reuse is error prone, and each stage of the Data Life Cycle presents opportunities for mistakes. The most common errors occurred when the researcher did not provide adequate metadata to enable others to interpret and potentially re-use the data. Fortunately, there are ways to minimize these mistakes through carefully recording all details about study context, data collection, QA/ QC, and analytical procedures from the beginning of a research project and then including this descriptive information in the metadata.”


Academic Administrator Influence on Institutional Commitment to Open…


Academic Administrator Influence on Institutional Commitment to Open Access of Scholarly Research :

“This quantitative study investigated the interrelationships among faculty researchers, publishers, librarians, and academic administrators when dealing with the open access of scholarly research. This study sought to identify the nature of any relationship between the perceived attitudes and actions of academic administrators and an institution’s commitment to open access as reported by library directors. A survey research design was used to collect data based on perceptions of library directors at four year colleges and universities in the United States. Results of this study show that as academic administrator attention to open access increases so do the open access activities of faculty and librarians. Information presented may benefit members in each stakeholder group by allowing them to better position their organizations for future success in a complex environment. This study may also benefit advocates of open access who wish to expand services and other initiatives that encourage the greater accessibility of scholarly work.”


Repositioning academic repositories for better management through open…


Repositioning academic repositories for better management through open access :

“This is a literature-based opinion paper which examines how digital technology through Open Access has changed the way knowledge that was hitherto hard to find and expensive is finding its way into university electronic repositories and bridging the distance between searching and retrieval. The paper examines opportunities available to scholars, researchers and institutions of higher learning through Open Access and Open Content using electronic repositories. In a number of African academic institutions of higher learning, starting and maintaining journals is becoming the order of the day. Once launched, these journals provide ready material for Open Access through repositories.

Due to the prohibitive price of books it is difficult to purchase all the available books on certain topics. Therefore Open Access on the internet and in repositories would be a good option since updated materials will be available. Open Access repositories and archives are economically sustainable because they are affordable. Depositing new articles takes a few minutes, and is done by individual authors, not archive managers. Open Access repositories and archives at universities only require server space. This benefits the institutions that host them by enhancing the visibility and impact of the articles, the authors, and the institution.

The paper argues that the current scholarly communication system needs urgent reforms to cope with the rapidly changing technological environment. Open Access and Open Content are free, immediate, and handle multiple users. On the other hand, electronic repositories can be set up

The paper recommends that electronic Open Access institutional repositories are a must have for academic institutions and that researchers, institutions and funders need to be informed and trained on the benefits of using Open Access and Institutional repositories. Through this management of knowledge, scholars worldwide will access and benefit from each other’s findings. This is in line with the universal drive to share knowledge propelled by new technologies.”


Author Co Citation Analysis ACA a powerful tool…

Author Co-Citation Analysis (ACA): a powerful tool for representing implicit knowledge of scholar knowledge workers :

“In the last decade, knowledge has emerged as one of the most important and valuable organizational assets. Gradually this importance caused to emergence of new discipline entitled ―knowledge management‖. However one of the major challenges of knowledge management is conversion implicit or tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. Thus Making knowledge visible so that it can be better accessed, discussed, valued or generally managed is a long-standing objective in knowledge management. Accordingly in this paper author co- citation analysis (ACA) will be proposed as an efficient technique of knowledge visualization in academia (Scholar knowledge workers).”


Scientists, Philosophers, and Knowledge Managers, Oh My!: The Use of Philosopher of Science Michael Polanyi’s Ideas in the Literature of the Knowledge Management Movement

This paper asks and attempts to answer the following questions in the order they appear:

1) What does formal philosophy have in common with business?

2) What, according to KM authors Nonaka and Takeuchi, paved the way for Michael Polanyi’s ideas in KM?

3) In what context were Michael Polanyi’s ideas originally made well-known to the world of KM?

4) What are some practical examples of how Polanyi’s insights have been applied?

5) But do most in the KM movement really understand the core of Polanyi’s ideas regarding:

a) tacit and explicit knowledge,

b) information and knowledge, and

c) the management of knowledge

6) What might the future of KM, Polanyi, and philosophy in general, hold?

In this article’s conclusion, the importance of Polanyi’s thought is stressed, and KM practitioners are encouraged to take a closer look yet at the work of Michael Polanyi to assist them in their organizations.