Crafting Linked Open Data to Enhance the Discoverability of Institutional Repositories on the Web

Authors : Qiang Jin, Jane Sandberg

Institutional repositories are archives for collecting and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of institutions. Linked open data is to expose and connect pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web.

This paper studies how BIBFRAME 2.0 can be used to describe objects in institutional repositories, with the goal of bringing together efforts within two communities devoted to openness.

We examine a sample of mappings and conversions from Dublin Core to BIBRAME 2.0 ontology to see if BIBFRAME 2.0 will increase visibility of local digital collections on the Web.

URL : http://qqml-journal.net/index.php/qqml/article/view/505

Automatically Annotating Articles Towards Opening and Reusing Transparent Peer Reviews

Authors : Afshin Sadeghi, Sarven Capadisli, Johannes Wilm, Christoph Lange, Philipp Mayr

An increasing number of scientific publications are created in open and transparent peer review models: a submission is published first, and then reviewers are invited, or a submission is reviewed in a closed environment but then these reviews are published with the final article, or combinations of these.

Reasons for open peer review include giving better credit to reviewers and enabling readers to better appraise the quality of a publication. In most cases, the full, unstructured text of an open review is published next to the full, unstructured text of the article reviewed.

This approach prevents human readers from getting a quick impression of the quality of parts of an article, and it does not easily support secondary exploitation, e.g., for scientometrics on reviews.

While document formats have been proposed for publishing structured articles including reviews, integrated tool support for entire open peer review workflows resulting in such documents is still scarce.

We present AR-Annotator, the Automatic Article and Review Annotator which employs a semantic information model of an article and its reviews, using semantic markup and unique identifiers for all entities of interest.

The fine-grained article structure is not only exposed to authors and reviewers but also preserved in the published version. We publish articles and their reviews in a Linked Data representation and thus maximize their reusability by third-party applications.

We demonstrate this reusability by running quality-related queries against the structured representation of articles and their reviews.

URL : https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.01027

The Evolution of the Concept of Semantic Web in the Context of Wikipedia: An Exploratory Approach to Study the Collective Conceptualization in a Digital Collaborative Environment

Authors : Luís Miguel Machado, Maria Manuel Borges, Renato Rocha Souza

Wikipedia, as a “social machine”, is a privileged place to observe the collective construction of concepts without central control. Based on Dahlberg’s theory of concept, and anchored in the pragmatism of Hjørland—in which the concepts are socially negotiated meanings—the evolution of the concept of semantic web (SW) was analyzed in the English version of Wikipedia.

An exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative study was designed and we identified 26 different definitions (between 12 July 2001 and 31 December 2017), of which eight are of particular relevance for their duration, with the latter being the two recorded at the end of the analyzed period.

According to them, SW: “is an extension of the web” and “is a Web of Data”; the latter, used as a complementary definition, links to Berners-Lee’s publications. In Wikipedia, the evolution of the SW concept appears to be based on the search for the use of non-technical vocabulary and the control of authority carried out by the debate.

As a space for collective bargaining of meanings, the Wikipedia study may bring relevant contributions to a community’s understanding of a particular concept and how it evolves over time.

URL : The Evolution of the Concept of Semantic Web in the Context of Wikipedia: An Exploratory Approach to Study the Collective Conceptualization in a Digital Collaborative Environment

DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/publications6040044

Usages et applications du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques

Author : Hiba Melhem

Ce travail de recherche se situe dans le champ interdisciplinaire des sciences de l’information et de la communication (SIC) et a pour but d’explorer la question de l’usage du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques.

Le web oblige les bibliothèques à repenser leurs organisations, leurs activités, leurs pratiques et leurs services, afin de se repositionner en tant qu’instituts de références pour la diffusion des savoirs. Dans cette thèse, nous souhaitons comprendre les contextes d’usage du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques françaises.

Il s’agit de s’interroger sur les apports du web sémantique au sein de ces bibliothèques, ainsi que sur les défis et les obstacles qui accompagnent sa mise en place. Ensuite, nous nous intéressons aux pratiques documentaires et à leurs évolutions suite à l’introduction du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques.

La problématique s’attache au rôle que peuvent jouer les professionnels de l’information dans la mise en place du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques. Après avoir sélectionné 98 bibliothèques numériques suite à une analyse de trois recensements, une enquête s’appuyant sur un questionnaire vise à recueillir des données sur l’usage du web sémantique dans ces bibliothèques.

Ensuite, une deuxième enquête réalisée au moyen d’entretiens permet de mettre en évidence les représentations qu’ont les professionnels de l’information du web sémantique et de son usage en bibliothèque, ainsi que de l’évolution de leurs pratiques professionnelles.

Les résultats montrent que la représentation des connaissances dans le cadre du web sémantique nécessite une intervention humaine permettant de fournir le cadre conceptuel pour déterminer les liens entre les données.

Enfin, les professionnels de l’information peuvent devenir des acteurs du web sémantique, dans le sens où leurs rôles ne se limitent pas à l’utilisation du web sémantique mais aussi au développement de ses standards pour assurer une meilleure organisation des connaissances.

URL : https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01742957

Réflexions sur le fragment dans les pratiques scientifiques en ligne : entre matérialité documentaire et péricope

Auteurs/Authors : Gérald Kembellec, Thomas Bottini

Cette communication propose une réflexion pluridisciplinaire (SIC, ingénierie documentaire et théorie du document numérique, informatique, « humanités numériques », histoire des pratiques savantes) sur les usages du fragment dans les pratiques documentaires scientifiques en ligne.

En prolongement de ces éléments théoriques sont proposés un modèle théorique de la segmentation des contenus en unités de sens (péricope) et des directions d’implémentation.

URL : https://hal-univ-paris10.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01700064

Research Articles in Simplified HTML: a Web-first format for HTML-based scholarly articles

Authors : Silvio Peroni, Francesco Osborne, Angelo Di Iorio, Andrea Giovanni Nuzzolese, Francesco Poggi, Fabio Vitali, Enrico Motta

Purpose

This paper introduces the Research Articles in Simplified HTML (or RASH), which is a Web-first format for writing HTML-based scholarly papers; it is accompanied by the RASH Framework, i.e. a set tools for interacting with RASH-based articles. The paper also presents an evaluation that involved authors and reviewers of RASH articles, submitted to the SAVE-SD 2015 and SAVE-SD 2016 workshops.

Design

RASH has been developed in order to: be easy to learn and use; share scholarly documents (and embedded semantic annotations) through the Web; support its adoption within the existing publishing workflow.

Findings

The evaluation study confirmed that RASH can already be adopted in workshops, conferences and journals and can be quickly learnt by researchers who are familiar with HTML.

Research limitations

The evaluation study also highlighted some issues in the adoption of RASH, and in general of HTML formats, especially by less technical savvy users. Moreover, additional tools are needed, e.g. for enabling additional conversion from/to existing formats such as OpenXML.

Practical implications

RASH (and its Framework) is another step towards enabling the definition of formal representations of the meaning of the content of an article, facilitate its automatic discovery, enable its linking to semantically related articles, provide access to data within the article in actionable form, and allow integration of data between papers.

Social implications

RASH addresses the intrinsic needs related to the various users of a scholarly article: researchers (focussing on its content), readers (experiencing new ways for browsing it), citizen scientists (reusing available data formally defined within it through semantic annotations), publishers (using the advantages of new technologies as envisioned by the Semantic Publishing movement).

Value

RASH focuses strictly on writing the content of the paper (i.e., organisation of text + semantic annotations) and leaves all the issues about it validation, visualisation, conversion, and semantic data extraction to the various tools developed within its Framework.

URL : https://essepuntato.github.io/papers/rash-peerj2016.html

Decentralized provenance-aware publishing with nanopublications

Authors : Tobias Kuhn, Christine Chichester, Michael Krauthammer, Núria Queralt-Rosinach, Ruben Verborgh, George Giannakopoulos, Axel-Cyrille Ngonga Ngomo, Raffaele Viglianti, Michel Dumontier

Publication and archival of scientific results is still commonly considered the responsability of classical publishing companies. Classical forms of publishing, however, which center around printed narrative articles, no longer seem well-suited in the digital age.

In particular, there exist currently no efficient, reliable, and agreed-upon methods for publishing scientific datasets, which have become increasingly important for science. In this article, we propose to design scientific data publishing as a web-based bottom-up process, without top-down control of central authorities such as publishing companies.

Based on a novel combination of existing concepts and technologies, we present a server network to decentrally store and archive data in the form of nanopublications, an RDF-based format to represent scientific data.

We show how this approach allows researchers to publish, retrieve, verify, and recombine datasets of nanopublications in a reliable and trustworthy manner, and we argue that this architecture could be used as a low-level data publication layer to serve the Semantic Web in general.

Our evaluation of the current network shows that this system is efficient and reliable.

URL : Decentralized provenance-aware publishing with nanopublications

DOI : https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.78