Evaluation of a novel cloud-based software platform for structured experiment design and linked data analytics

Authors : Hannes Juergens, Matthijs Niemeijer, Laura D. Jennings-Antipov, Robert Mans, Jack More, Antonius J. A. van Maris, Jack T. Pronk, Timothy S. Gardner

Open data in science requires precise definition of experimental procedures used in data generation, but traditional practices for sharing protocols and data cannot provide the required data contextualization.

Here, we explore implementation, in an academic research setting, of a novel cloud-based software system designed to address this challenge. The software supports systematic definition of experimental procedures as visual processes, acquisition and analysis of primary data, and linking of data and procedures in machine-computable form.

The software was tested on a set of quantitative microbial-physiology experiments. Though time-intensive, definition of experimental procedures in the software enabled much more precise, unambiguous definitions of experiments than conventional protocols.

Once defined, processes were easily reusable and composable into more complex experimental flows. Automatic coupling of process definitions to experimental data enables immediate identification of correlations between procedural details, intended and unintended experimental perturbations, and experimental outcomes.

Software-based experiment descriptions could ultimately replace terse and ambiguous ‘Materials and Methods’ sections in scientific journals, thus promoting reproducibility and reusability of published studies.

URL : Evaluation of a novel cloud-based software platform for structured experiment design and linked data analytics

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.195

L’ouverture des données publiques : un bien commun en devenir ?

Auteurs/Authors : Valérie Larroche, Marie-France Peyrelong, Philippe Beaune

Cet article interroge les données ouvertes en tant que bien commun. Le traitement préalable effectué sur les données à mettre à disposition permet de créer une ressource partagée et, à première vue, possède le potentiel pour être un bien commun. L’article relève plusieurs points d’achoppement qui nuancent cette affirmation.

Le premier argument provient des licences qui n’exigent pas du fournisseur de données en temps réel une continuité du service.

Le deuxième argument pointe le rôle du ré-utilisateur de la donnée qui ne participe pas à la gouvernance de la donnée.

Enfin, le dernier argument souligne le fait que les collectivités impliquées dans les communs urbains ne présentent pas l’open data comme tel.

Nos justifications sont le fruit d’analyses de portails de villes et d’entretiens menés auprès de ré-utilisateurs de données ouvertes.

URL : L’ouverture des données publiques : un bien commun en devenir ?

Alternative location : http://journals.openedition.org/ticetsociete/2466

Full Disclosure: Open Business Data and the Publisher’s Cookbook

Authors : Sebastian Nordhoff, Felix Kopecky

This short paper presents the three main outcomes of the OpenAire project “Full disclosure: replicable strategies for book publications supplemented with empirical data”: a fully specified business model; accountacy data; and a “cookbook” containing recipes how to set up a resilient community-based book publisher.

The provision of these items available for free reuse will allow other publishing projects to understand, adapt, and modify the community-based model of Language Science Press.

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01816822

Redistributing Data Worlds: Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Democracy

Author : Jonathan Gray

Open data, defined as a set of ideas and conventions that transform information into a reusable public resource, is promoted for various purposes: to improve the transparency of public institutions, to create projects that strengthen democracy, to stimulate economic growth.

The social and technical infrastructures that support open data recompose the “worlds of data”: new social collectives are formed, new practices creating meaning appear. Transnational political initiatives are emerging. Far from being a simple “release” of data, it does not go without translation, mediation, and new social practices.

But can this movement serve as a basis for a richer democratic deliberation, or is it destined to socially institutionalize various forms of bureaucratization and commodification?

URL : https://ssrn.com/abstract=3111720

L’horizon d’une culture de la donnée ouverte : de l’utopie aux pratiques de gouvernance des données

Auteur/Author : Anne Lehmans

Le développement des open data en France conduit les acteurs à s’interroger sur les stratégies et les pratiques de gestion des données à mettre en place dans les organisations concernées.

L’affichage d’une politique d’ouverture des données, dans une logique affirmée de transparence, de participation et d’innovation, est susceptible de bouleverser les routines dans les modes de gestion et de contrôle de la circulation de l’information.

Les principes et les formes de gouvernance des données font l’objet d’une réflexion renouvelée, l’ouverture des données faisant office de catalyseur pour introduire un principe de décision partagée dans le cycle de vie de la donnée.

Un projet de recherche sur la culture des données, partant d’une enquête qualitative sur les pratiques de gestion des données, montre que, face aux demandes, aux risques et aux avantages perçus dans l’agenda de l’ouverture et de la diffusion des données ouvertes, des stratégies variées de gouvernance des données s’installent, avec des effets sur le management de l’information et la gestion des connaissances.

URL : http://revue-cossi.info/numeros/n-1-2018-big-data-thick-data/708-1-2018-revue-lehmans

Open Data Maturity in Europe 2016 : Insights into the European state of play

Authors : Wendy Carrara, Margriet Nieuwenhuis, Heleen Vollers

This report is the second in a series of annual studies and explores the level of Open Data Maturity in the EU28 and Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein – referred to as EU28+. The measurement is built on two key indicators Open Data Readiness and Portal Maturity, thereby covering the level of development of national activities promoting Open Data as well as the level of development of national portals.

In 2016, with a 28.6% increase compared to 2015, the EU28+ countries completed over 55% of their Open Data journey showing that, by 2016, a majority of the EU28+ countries have successfully developed a basic approach to address Open Data.

The Portal Maturity level increased by 22.6 percentage points from 41.7% to 64.3% thanks to the development of more advanced features on country data portals. The overall Open Data Maturity groups countries into different clusters: Beginners, Followers, Fast Trackers and Trend Setters.

Barriers do remain to move Open Data forward. The report concludes on a series of recommendations, providing countries with guidance to further improve Open Data maturity.

Countries need to raise more (political) awareness around Open Data, increase automated processes on their portals to increase usability and re-usability of data, and organise more events and trainings to support both local and national initiatives.

URL : Open Data Maturity in Europe 2016 : Insights into the European state of play

Alternative location : https://www.europeandataportal.eu/sites/default/files/edp_landscaping_insight_report_n2_2016.pdf

Open Data, Grey Data, and Stewardship: Universities at the Privacy Frontier

Author : Christine L. Borgman

As universities recognize the inherent value in the data they collect and hold, they encounter unforeseen challenges in stewarding those data in ways that balance accountability, transparency, and protection of privacy, academic freedom, and intellectual property.

Two parallel developments in academic data collection are converging: (1) open access requirements, whereby researchers must provide access to their data as a condition of obtaining grant funding or publishing results in journals; and (2) the vast accumulation of ‘grey data’ about individuals in their daily activities of research, teaching, learning, services, and administration.

The boundaries between research and grey data are blurring, making it more difficult to assess the risks and responsibilities associated with any data collection. Many sets of data, both research and grey, fall outside privacy regulations such as HIPAA, FERPA, and PII.

Universities are exploiting these data for research, learning analytics, faculty evaluation, strategic decisions, and other sensitive matters. Commercial entities are besieging universities with requests for access to data or for partnerships to mine them.

The privacy frontier facing research universities spans open access practices, uses and misuses of data, public records requests, cyber risk, and curating data for privacy protection.

This paper explores the competing values inherent in data stewardship and makes recommendations for practice, drawing on the pioneering work of the University of California in privacy and information security, data governance, and cyber risk.

URL : https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.02953