Usages et applications du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques

Author : Hiba Melhem

Ce travail de recherche se situe dans le champ interdisciplinaire des sciences de l’information et de la communication (SIC) et a pour but d’explorer la question de l’usage du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques.

Le web oblige les bibliothèques à repenser leurs organisations, leurs activités, leurs pratiques et leurs services, afin de se repositionner en tant qu’instituts de références pour la diffusion des savoirs. Dans cette thèse, nous souhaitons comprendre les contextes d’usage du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques françaises.

Il s’agit de s’interroger sur les apports du web sémantique au sein de ces bibliothèques, ainsi que sur les défis et les obstacles qui accompagnent sa mise en place. Ensuite, nous nous intéressons aux pratiques documentaires et à leurs évolutions suite à l’introduction du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques.

La problématique s’attache au rôle que peuvent jouer les professionnels de l’information dans la mise en place du web sémantique en bibliothèques numériques. Après avoir sélectionné 98 bibliothèques numériques suite à une analyse de trois recensements, une enquête s’appuyant sur un questionnaire vise à recueillir des données sur l’usage du web sémantique dans ces bibliothèques.

Ensuite, une deuxième enquête réalisée au moyen d’entretiens permet de mettre en évidence les représentations qu’ont les professionnels de l’information du web sémantique et de son usage en bibliothèque, ainsi que de l’évolution de leurs pratiques professionnelles.

Les résultats montrent que la représentation des connaissances dans le cadre du web sémantique nécessite une intervention humaine permettant de fournir le cadre conceptuel pour déterminer les liens entre les données.

Enfin, les professionnels de l’information peuvent devenir des acteurs du web sémantique, dans le sens où leurs rôles ne se limitent pas à l’utilisation du web sémantique mais aussi au développement de ses standards pour assurer une meilleure organisation des connaissances.


The interactive library as a virtual working space

Author : Andreas Degkwitz

The internet and the new digital media are challenging the traditional business model of academic libraries and enable new capabilities of information provisioning and new shapes of collaborations between the librarians and the users.

To pick up the demands and the expectations of the many users, whose information behavior is heavily influenced by the internet, a new business model for academic libraries has to be designed urgently.

The aim of the project is to analyze and to identify the organizational and technical requirements of a business model for the future library, which is based on the potential of the internet and the new media.

The result is a pilot study about the interactive, multi-user driven library as the future business model for libraries.

URL : The interactive library as a virtual working space


Bibliothèques numériques et crowdsourcing : expérimentations autour de Numalire, projet de numérisation à la demande par crowdfunding

Auteur/Author : Mathieu Andro

Au lieu d’externaliser certaines tâches auprès de prestataires ayant recours à des pays dont la main d’œuvre est bon marché, les bibliothèques dans le monde font de plus en plus appel aux foules d’internautes, rendant plus collaborative leur relation avec les usagers.

Après un chapitre conceptuel sur les conséquences de ce nouveau modèle économique sur la société et sur les bibliothèques, un panorama des projets est présenté dans les domaines de la numérisation à la demande, de la correction participative de l’OCR notamment sous la forme de jeux (gamification) et de la folksonomie.

Ce panorama débouche sur un état de l’art du crowdsourcing appliqué à la numérisation et aux bibliothèques numériques et sur des analyses dans le domaine des sciences de l’information et de la communication.

Enfin, sont présentées des apports conceptuels et des expérimentations originales, principalement autour du projet Numalire de numérisation à la demande par crowdfunding.

URL : Bibliothèques numériques et crowdsourcing : expérimentations autour de Numalire, projet de numérisation à la demande par crowdfunding

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Knowledge Infrastructures in Science: Data, Diversity, and Digital Libraries

Digital libraries can be deployed at many points throughout the life cycles of scientific research projects from their inception through data collection, analysis, documentation, publication, curation, preservation, and stewardship. Requirements for digital libraries to manage research data vary along many dimensions, including life cycle, scale, research domain, and types and degrees of openness.

This article addresses the role of digital libraries in knowledge infrastructures for science, presenting evidence from long-term studies of four research sites. Findings are based on interviews (n=208), ethnographic fieldwork, document analysis, and historical archival research about scientific data practices, conducted over the course of more than a decade.

The Transformation of Knowledge, Culture, and Practice in Data-Driven Science: A Knowledge Infrastructures Perspective project is based on a 2×2 design, comparing two “big science” astronomy sites with two “little science” sites that span physical sciences, life sciences, and engineering, and on dimensions of project scale and temporal stage of life cycle.

The two astronomy sites invested in digital libraries for data management as part of their initial research design, whereas the smaller sites made smaller investments at later stages. Role specialization varies along the same lines, with the larger projects investing in information professionals, and smaller teams carrying out their own activities internally. Sites making the largest investments in digital libraries appear to view their datasets as their primary scientific legacy, while other sites stake their legacy elsewhere. Those investing in digital libraries are more concerned with the release and reuse of data; types and degrees of openness vary accordingly.

The need for expertise in digital libraries, data science, and data stewardship is apparent throughout all four sites. Examples are presented of the challenges in designing digital libraries and knowledge infrastructures to manage and steward research data.


Access to Digital Libraries for Disadvantaged Users …

Access to Digital Libraries for Disadvantaged Users :

“Digital libraries, designed to serve people and their information needs in the same way as traditional libraries, present distinct advantages over brick and mortar facilities: elimination of physical boundaries, round-the-clock access to information, multiple access points, networking abilities, and extended search functions. As a result, they should be especially well-suited for the disadvantaged. However, minorities, those affected by lower income and education status, persons living in rural areas, the physically disabled, and developing countries as a whole consistently suffer from a lack of accessibility to digital libraries. This paper evaluates the effectiveness and relevance of digital libraries currently in place and discusses what could and should be done to improve accessibility to digital libraries for the disadvantaged.”


Legal Issues in Mass Digitization A Preliminary Analysis…

Legal Issues in Mass Digitization: A Preliminary Analysis and Discussion Document :

“This Preliminary Analysis and Discussion Document (the “Analysis”) addresses the issues raised by the intersection between copyright law and the mass digitization of books. The Copyright Office (the “Office”) has prepared this Analysis for the purpose of facilitating further discussion among the affected parties and the public – discussions that may encompass a number of possible approaches, including voluntary initiatives, legislative options, or both.

On March 22, 2011, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York rejected a proposed settlement of the class action lawsuit brought by the Authors Guild and a related suit by book publishers against Google for the mass digitization of books in several large U.S. libraries. The court ruled that the class action settlement would have redefined the relationship between copyright law and new technology, and encroached upon Congress’s ability to set copyright policy with respect to orphan works. Subsequently, on September 12, 2011, the Authors Guild and several prominent authors sued five university libraries that participated in Google’s mass digitization project as well as a library consortium known as the HathiTrust after the universities announced their intention to offer access to some of the book scans Google had provided to them.

These developments have sparked public debate on the risks and opportunities that mass book digitization may create for authors, publishers, libraries, technology companies, the general public, and the corresponding legal framework. The questions are many: What mass digitization projects are currently underway in the United States? What are the objectives and who are the intended beneficiaries? How are the exclusive rights of copyright owners implicated? What exceptions or limitations may apply, to whom, and in what circumstances? To the extent there are public policy goals at issue, what could Congress do to facilitate or control the boundaries of mass digitization projects? Would orphan works legislation help? Are efficient and costeffective licensing options available? Could Congress encourage or even require new licensing schemes for mass digitization? Could it provide direction and oversight to authors, publishers,
libraries, and technology companies as they explore solutions? Indeed, these stakeholders may be in the best position to find points of consensus and create strategies for the U.S. book and library sectors.

The issues discussed in this Analysis are complex and require public discussion. The Office recognizes that the Google Books proceeding, initiated more than six years ago, and the recently filed lawsuit involving the HathiTrust Digital Library will continue to influence the public debate over mass digitization. International developments may also contribute to the debate in the United States. Although the marketplace and the issues will continue to evolve, the Office believes there is sufficient information to undertake an intense public discussion about the broader policy implications of mass book digitization. By necessity, this discussion must address the relationship between the emerging digital marketplace and the existing copyright framework.”