Ouverture des données de la recherche : de la vision politique aux pratiques des chercheurs

Auteur/Author : Violaine Rebouillat

Cette thèse s’intéresse aux données de la recherche, dans un contexte d’incitation croissante à leur ouverture. Les données de la recherche sont des informations collectées par les scientifiques dans la perspective d’être utilisées comme preuves d’une théorie scientifique.

Il s’agit d’une notion complexe à définir, car contextuelle. Depuis les années 2000, le libre accès aux données occupe une place de plus en plus stratégique dans les politiques de recherche. Ces enjeux ont été relayés par des professions intermédiaires, qui ont développé des services dédiés, destinés à accompagner les chercheurs dans l’application des recommandations de gestion et d’ouverture.

La thèse interroge le lien entre idéologie de l’ouverture et pratiques de recherche. Quelles formes de gestion et de partage des données existent dans les communautés de recherche et par quoi sont-elles motivées ? Quelle place les chercheurs accordent-ils à l’offre de services issue des politiques de gestion et d’ouverture des données ?

Pour tenter d’y répondre, 57 entretiens ont été réalisés avec des chercheurs de l’Université de Strasbourg dans différentes disciplines. L’enquête révèle une très grande variété de pratiques de gestion et de partage de données. Un des points mis en évidence est que, dans la logique scientifique, le partage des données répond un besoin.

Il fait partie intégrante de la stratégie du chercheur, dont l’objectif est avant tout de préserver ses intérêts professionnels. Les données s’inscrivent donc dans un cycle de crédibilité, qui leur confère à la fois une valeur d’usage (pour la production de nouvelles publications) et une valeur d’échange (en tant que monnaie d’échange dans le cadre de collaborations avec des partenaires).

L’enquête montre également que les services développés dans un contexte d’ouverture des données correspondent pour une faible partie à ceux qu’utilisent les chercheurs.

L’une des hypothèses émises est que l’offre de services arrive trop tôt pour rencontrer les besoins des chercheurs. L’évaluation et la reconnaissance des activités scientifiques étant principalement fondées sur la publication d’articles et d’ouvrages, la gestion et l’ouverture des données ne sont pas considérées comme prioritaires par les chercheurs.

La seconde hypothèse avancée est que les services d’ouverture des données sont proposés par des acteurs relativement éloignés des communautés de recherche. Les chercheurs sont davantage influencés par des réseaux spécifiques à leurs champs de recherche (revues, infrastructures…).

Ces résultats invitent finalement à reconsidérer la question de la médiation dans l’ouverture des données scientifiques.

URL : https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02447653

Identifying and Implementing Relevant Research Data Management Services for the Library at the University of Dodoma, Tanzania

Authors : Gilbert Exaud Mushi, Heila Pienaar, Martie van Deventer

Research Data Management (RDM) services are increasingly becoming a subject of interest for academic and research libraries globally – this is also the case in developing countries.

The interest is motivated by a need to support research activities through data sharing and collaboration both locally and internationally. Many institutions, especially in the developed countries, have implemented RDM services to accelerate research and innovation through e-Research but extensive RDM is not so common in developing countries.

In reality many African universities and research institutions are yet to implement the most basic of data management services. We believe that the absence of political will and national government mandates on data management often hold back the development and implementation of RDM services. Similarly, research funding agencies are not yet applying sufficient pressure to ensure that Africa complies with the requirement to deposit research data in trusted repositories.

While the context was acknowledged the University of Dodoma library staff realized that it is urgent to prepare for the inevitable – the time when RDM will be a requirement for research funding support.

This paper presents the results of research conducted at the University of Dodoma, Tanzania. The purpose of the research was to identify and report on relevant RDM services that need to be implemented so that researchers and university management could collaborate and make our research data accessible to the international community.

This paper presents findings on important issues for consideration when planning to develop and implement RDM services at a developing country academic institution. The paper also mentions the requirements for the sustainability of these initiatives.

URL : Identifying and Implementing Relevant Research Data Management Services for the Library at the University of Dodoma, Tanzania

DOI : http://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2020-001

Resurfacing Historical Scientific Data: A Case Study Involving Fruit Breeding Data

Authors : Shannon L. Farrell, Lois G. Hendrickson, Kristen L. Mastel, Katherine Adina Allen, Julia A. Kelly

Objective

The objective of this paper is to illustrate the importance and complexities of working with historical analog data that exists on university campuses. Using a case study of fruit breeding data, we highlight issues and opportunities for librarians to help preserve and increase access to potentially valuable data sets.

Methods

We worked in conjunction with researchers to inventory, describe, and increase access to a large, 100-year-old data set of analog fruit breeding data. This involved creating a spreadsheet to capture metadata about each data set, identifying data sets at risk for loss, and digitizing select items for deposit in our institutional repository.

Results/Discussion

We illustrate that large amounts of data exist within biological and agricultural sciences departments and labs, and how past practices of data collection, record keeping, storage, and management have hindered data reuse.

We demonstrate that librarians have a role in collaborating with researchers and providing direction in how to preserve analog data and make it available for reuse. This work may provide guidance for other science librarians pursing similar projects.

Conclusions

This case study demonstrates how science librarians can build or strengthen their role in managing and providing access to analog data by combining their data management skills with researchers’ needs to recover and reuse data.

URL : Resurfacing Historical Scientific Data: A Case Study Involving Fruit Breeding Data

DOI : https://doi.org/10.7191/jeslib.2019.1171

Fabriquer des documents en Bibliothèque universitaire : un modèle d’apprentissage actif à la recherche documentaire

Auteur/Author  : Nathalie Joubert

Depuis plus de dix ans, les bibliothécaires tentent de renouveler les espaces et les services qu’ils proposent, en privilégiant la relation avec leurs publics. L’environnement dans lequel nous situons nos réflexions est celui des bibliothèques universitaires, autour des questions de formation documentaire des étudiants de licence en sciences humaines.

Constatant que la pédagogie traditionnelle ne correspond plus aux attentes des étudiants, les bibliothécaires cherchent à rénover les modalités de cette formation. De nouveaux concepts se développent, basés sur la pédagogie active, notamment sous la forme de laboratoires favorisant diverses expérimentations liées aux nouvelles technologies et plaçant l’utilisateur au cœur de l’innovation.

Partant de ces principes, nous envisageons une transposition vers des ateliers ludiques et actifs de fabrication de document par le biais d’enquête documentaire menée par des étudiants à qui une mission est confiée. Nous proposons d’interroger ces « DocuFabs » en tant qu’alternatives pédagogiques pour l’apprentissage des compétences informationnelles.

URL : https://revue-cossi.info/numeros/n-6-2019-questionner-les-manieres-d-habiter-les-espaces-documentaires-d-acces-aux-savoirs-une-approche-sensible/752-fabriquer-des-documents-en-bibliotheque-universitaire-un-modele-d-apprentissage-actif-a-la-recherche-documentaire-nathalie-joubert

 

Grey Literature: Use, Creation, and Citation Habits of Faculty Researchers across Disciplines

Authors : Kristen Cooper, Wanda Marsolek, Amy Riegelman, Shannon Farrell, Julie Kelly

INTRODUCTION

Grey literature is ephemeral, and the level to which it is created, used, and cited by faculty, graduate students, and other researchers is not well understood.

METHODS

This electronic survey was distributed to a sample (57%) of the faculty across a wide variety of disciplines with the only criteria based on tenure and tenure-track faculty at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities, a large R1 institution.

RESULTS

Faculty across disciplines both use and create grey literature for several reasons, including its far more rapid Faculty across disciplines both use and create grey literature for several reasons, including its far more rapid publication process.

DISCUSSION

Many faculty in a wide variety of disciplines are using and creating grey literature. The survey illustrates the different types of grey literature that are being used and for what purpose.

Other topics, such as how faculty are finding grey literature (via Google Scholar and professional contacts), whether they are citing it, and which types they create (e.g., conference papers, preprints, technical reports) are also discussed.

CONCLUSION

As a result of this survey, librarians can provide support for faculty who use and create grey literature in all disciplines and advocate for and promote grey literature to faculty. With more scholars participating in systematic reviews of grey literature, librarians will need to be more cognizant of where and how it may be discovered.

URL : Grey Literature: Use, Creation, and Citation Habits of Faculty Researchers across Disciplines

DOI : http://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2314

An Analysis of Digital Library Publishing Services in Ukrainian Universities

Authors : Tetiana Kolesnykova, Olena Matveyeva

Objective – The objective of this study was to assess the current state of digital library publishing (DLP) in university libraries in the Ukraine. The study was conducted in the hopes of gaining a better understanding of the DLP landscape, namely institutional operations, as well as their varying publishing initiatives, processes, and scope.

Methods

The current study was conducted from January to June 2017 using a mixed methods approach, involving semi-structured interviews and an online questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted (n = 11) to gain insight into participants’ experiences with DLP.

The interviews helped in the creation of the questions included in our online questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to 195 representatives (directors and leading specialists) of university libraries in the Ukraine. Replies were received from 111 of those institutions.

The questionnaire consisted of 11 open- and closed-ended questions to allow the researchers to obtain a holistic picture of the process under investigation.

Results

Analysis of the 111 questionnaires showed that for 26 libraries, DLP services were performed by employees of a separate structural unit of the library. For 34 libraries, employees of various departments were involved in performing certain types of services.

The other 40 respondents’ libraries were planning to do this in the near future. Only 11 respondents replied that they did provide DLP services now nor planned to in the future. Among the libraries providing DLP services, the following results were observed: 54 of 60 work with digital repositories, 47 provide digital publishing platforms for journals, 26 provide digital publishing platforms for books, and 23 provide digital publishing platforms for conferences.

Conclusions

The results obtained indicate a growing trend of expanding digital services in university libraries to support study, teaching, and research. Despite the still spontaneous, chaotic, and poorly explored nature of the development of the library publishing movement in the university libraries of the Ukraine, the readiness of librarians to implement publishing activities is notable.

At the same time, the survey results point to specific aspects, such as organizational, economic, personnel, and motivational, that require further study.

URL : An Analysis of Digital Library Publishing Services in Ukrainian Universities

DOI : https://doi.org/10.18438/eblip29510