The “total cost of publication” in a hybrid open-access environment: Institutional approaches to funding journal article-processing charges in combination with subscriptions

« As open-access (OA) publishing funded by article-processing charges (APCs) becomes more widely accepted, academic institutions need to be aware of the “total cost of publication” (TCP), comprising subscription costs plus APCs and additional administration costs. This study analyzes data from 23 UK institutions covering the period 2007–2014 modeling the TCP. It shows a clear rise in centrally managed APC payments from 2012 onward, with payments projected to increase further. As well as evidencing the growing availability and acceptance of OA publishing, these trends reflect particular UK policy developments and funding arrangements intended to accelerate the move toward OA publishing (“Gold” OA). Although the mean value of APCs has been relatively stable, there was considerable variation in APC prices paid by institutions since 2007. In particular, “hybrid” subscription/OA journals were consistently more expensive than fully OA journals. Most APCs were paid to large “traditional” commercial publishers who also received considerable subscription income. New administrative costs reported by institutions varied considerably. The total cost of publication modeling shows that APCs are now a significant part of the TCP for academic institutions, in 2013 already constituting an average of 10% of the TCP (excluding administrative costs). »

URL : The “total cost of publication” in a hybrid open-access environment

DOI: 10.1002/asi.23446

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The Value of Open Access Publishing to Health and Social Care Professionals in Ireland

« This article will focus on how open access publishing may add value to a number of health and social care professionals and their work in the health services. The results of two recent surveys are explored in relation to the research activity, barriers and awareness about open access publishing by health and social care professionals (HSCPs) working in the Irish health system. »

URL : http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue73/lawton-flynn

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Les archives ouvertes institutionnelles universitaires : les professionnels de l’information et de la documentation à l’épreuve de la globalisation de l’Enseignement supérieur

« Plus de vingt ans après le lancement de la première archive ouverte thématique ArXiv, il était nécessaire de replacer ce type de dispositif dans le contexte actuel de globalisation de l’Enseignement supérieur, afin de voir comment la voie verte de l’open access pouvait aujourd’hui s’inscrire dans les logiques institutionnelles et améliorer les stratégies de valorisation et de pilotage des universités françaises. A travers l’observation et l’étude du paysage des archives ouvertes institutionnelles universitaires, le présent travail se propose de montrer comment les missions traditionnelles des professionnels de l’information et de la documentation s’articulent avec ces enjeux stratégiques, au cours des projets menant à l’ouverture d’une plate-forme institutionnelle en libre accès. D’activités initialement basées sur la redistribution de ressources externes à l’institution vers l’intérieur de cette dernière, les professionnels de l’information-documentation sont amenés – sous l’impulsion du numérique et des outils qui en découlent, à l’image des archives ouvertes – à reconsidérer le versant communicationnel de leurs métiers et à pleinement participer à la diffusion des résultats de la recherche locale vers le reste de la communauté scientifique. Entre alternative au circuit éditorial scientifique, vitrine institutionnelle pour la recherche et outil de pilotage pour les gouvernances universitaires, les archives ouvertes placent aujourd’hui les professionnels de l’information et de la documentation au centre d’enjeux nouveaux, dépassant le cadre de leurs missions habituellement fondées sur l’accès aux documents. »

« More than twenty years after the launch of the first thematic open archive ArXiv, that was necessary to situate this kind of device in the current background of Higher education’s globalization, to see how the green road of open access could participate in the institutional logic and improve the strategies of valorisation and monitoring of the french universities. Through the observation and the study of the academic institutional repositories landscape, this work intends to show how the traditional missions of the information-documentation professionals are coordonate with this strategic issues during the projects driving to the launch of an institutional platform in open access. From activities based on the redistribution of external resources to the inside of the institution, the information-documentation professionals are brought – spurred on by the digital technologies and tools as the open archives – to reconsider the communication part of their professions and to take part of the diffusion of the local research findings to the rest of the scientific community. Between an alternative to the scientific editorial system, an institutional showcase for the research and a monitoring tool for the academic governances, the open archives put the information-documentation professionals at the centre of new issues, that go beyond the framework of their missions, usually found on the access to the documents. »

URL : Les archives ouvertes institutionnelles universitaires

Alternative URL : http://memsic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/mem_01109298

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Open Access: Ein Lackmustest (Open Access: A Litmus Test)

German Abstract: « Open Access ist ein interessanter Policy Bereich, nicht nur weil er die Produktionsbedingungen der öffentlichen Forschung selbst betrifft, sondern auch weil er möglicherweise einer verbreiteten Beobachtung in der Urheberrechtsforschung widerspricht. Bestimmend für die allgemeine Erzählung des Urheberrechts ist die Expansionsannahme. Demnach ist die Entwicklung der Ausschlussrechte durch eine kontinuierliche und lineare Expansion gekennzeichnet. Open Access Initiativen mobilisieren dagegen für eine Umkehrung dieses Trends. Sie zielen auf akademische Standards, die einen erlaubnisfreien Zugang zu und eine Nachnutzung von öffentlich finanzierten Forschungsergebnissen verbindlich festlegen.
Dieser Artikel gibt einen breiten Überblick über die verschiedenen Ursprünge, die Operationalisierungs- und Institutionalisierungsformen von Open Access. Er beginnt mit einem kurzen Abriss über die Entstehung und Formierung des Marktes für akademische Zeitschriften, dem bis heute mächtigsten Gegner der Open Access Bewegung; und er schließt mit einer exemplarischen Darstellung der neueren Policies in Großbritannien, im Hinblick auf Open Access derzeit eines der interessantesten Länder. Die Britische Politikentwicklung zeigt zunächst, dass der Teufel tatsächlich in den Implementationsdetails steckt. Dies betrifft nicht nur die Durchsetzung von Open Access Standards, sondern auch die Allokation von Rechten. Darüber hinaus lässt sich von diesem Beispiel lernen, wie wichtig die politische Akteurskonstellation für die Ausgestaltung von Open Access Regeln ist, und damit zugleich für die künftige Bedeutung von Ausschlussrechten in der Zirkulation von öffentlicher Forschung. »

English Abstract: « Open Access is an interesting policy domain, not only because it concerns the modes of production of academic knowledge, but also because it may contradict a common observation of copyright research. While the great copyright narrative assumes that intellectual property rights expand in a continuous and linear fashion, Open Access policies strive to achieve the opposite; to wit, academic standards, which allow a permission-free access and a re-use of publicly funded research results.
This article aims to provide a broad overview of the diverse origins, the operationalization and institutionalization of Open Access policies. It starts with the emergence and formation of the market for academic journals, the most powerful counterpart of the Open Access movement, and it concludes with recent Open Access policies in the UK, one of the most interesting countries in this context because it illustrates that the devil is in the implementation details. The example of the UK not only offers lessons on how Open Access standards can be enforced but, more importantly so, on the political constellations that determine the future fate of Open Access, including that of the role of property rights for the circulation of academic knowledge. »

URL : http://ssrn.com/abstract=2515844

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COAR Roadmap Future Directions for Repository Interoperability

« In the past few years, Open Access repositories and their associated services have become an important component of the global e-research infrastructure. Increasingly, repositories are also being integrated with other systems, such as research administrative systems and with research data repositories, with the aim of providing a more integrated and seamless suite of services to various communities. Repositories can also be connected into networks (e.g. at the national or regional level) to support unified access to an open, aggregated collection of scholarship and related materials that machines can mine enabling researchers to work with content in new ways and allowing funders and institutions to track research outputs.
Scholarly communication is undergoing fundamental changes, in particular with new requirements for open access to research outputs, new forms of peer-review, and alternative methods for measuring impact. In parallel, technical developments, especially in communication and interface technologies facilitate bi-directional data exchange across related applications and systems. The aim of this roadmap is to identify important trends and their associated action points in order for the repository community to determine priorities for further investments in interoperability. »

URL : COAR Roadmap Future Directions for Repository Interoperability

Alternative URL : https://www.coar-repositories.org/files/Roadmap_final_formatted_20150203.pdf

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The implementation of the European Commission recommendation on open access to scientific information: comparison of national policies

« Two years after the publication of the European Commission recommendation on open access to scientific information, the critical threshold of accessibility to fifty percent of papers has been crossed. However, this figure is an average and the implementation of the EC recommendation varies from one country to another. The topical issue now is to observe the different steps of implementation and to wonder about the reaseons of such a disparity. In order to suggest many elements of the response, this research compares the different levels of implementation in the EU28. »

URL : http://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic_01111211

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Knowledge Unlatched: A Global Library Consortium Model for Funding Open Access Scholarly Books

« This special issue of Cultural Science Journal is devoted to the report of a groundbreaking experiment in re-coordinating global markets for specialist scholarly books and enabling the knowledge commons: the Knowledge Unlatched proof-of-concept pilot. The pilot took place between January 2012 and September 2014. It involved libraries, publishers, authors, readers and research funders in the process of developing and testing a global library consortium model for supporting Open Access books. The experiment established that authors, librarians, publishers and research funding agencies can work together in powerful new ways to enable open access; that doing so is cost effective; and that a global library consortium model has the potential dramatically to widen access to the knowledge and ideas contained in book-length scholarly works. »

URL : http://microblogging.infodocs.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/96-625-1-PB.pdf

Alternative URL : http://cultural-science.org/journal/index.php/culturalscience/article/view/96

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Monographs and Open Access : A report to HEFCE

« This report examines, and seeks to clarify, the range of issues that emerge when we think about the relationship between open access and monographs (including under this latter term other long scholarly publications). It arises from the immediate need of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), and its sister funding councils in the UK, to examine the issues for open access in relation to books in a context where both funding and research councils in the UK have already established open-access requirements for publications in journals and conference proceedings, but the issues are much greater than those of defining the practicalities of mandates and the sustainability of open-access models. Furthermore, although the principal focus of the report is defined by the culture and policy preoccupations of higher education in this country, the international character of research, publishing, and academic careers has to be acknowledged. »

URL : http://www.hefce.ac.uk/media/hefce/content/pubs/indirreports/2015/monographsandopenaccess/2014_monographs.pdf

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Availability and accessibility in an open access institutional repository: a case study

« Introduction. This study explores the extent to which an institutional repository (IR) makes papers available and accessible on the open web by using 170 journal articles housed in DigiNole Commons, the IR at Florida State University.

Method. To analyze the IR’s impact on availability and accessibility, we conducted independent known-item title searches on both Google and Google Scholar (GS) to search for faculty publications housed in DigiNole Commons.

Analysis. The extent to which the IR makes articles available and accessible was measured quantitatively, and the findings that cannot be summarized with numbers were analyzed qualitatively.

Results. Google and GS searches provided links to DigiNole metadata for a total of 145 (85.3%) of 170 items, and to full texts for 96 (96%) of 100 items. With one exception, access to either metadata or full text required no more than three clicks.

Conclusions. Overall, the results confirm the contribution of the IR in making papers available and accessible. The results also reveal some impediments to the success of OA: including impediments linked to contractual arrangements between authors and publishers, impediments linked to policies, practices, and technologies governing the IR itself, and the low level of faculty participation in the IR. »

URL : http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/slis_faculty_publications/27/

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Making open access work for authors, institutions and publishers

« This report arises from a roundtable event hosted by Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) at University College London on 6 October 2014. The roundtable brought together representatives from academic institutions, publishers and vendors to discuss the challenge of “making open access work”.

Recent policy changes in the United Kingdom are driving a rapid increase in the number of article processing charges, or APCs, being paid to publishers in order to make articles open access. The attendees gathered to discuss the challenges faced by their organizations as APC volumes rise, and to explore the role that third-party vendors such as CCC can play in helping to address these. Discussions during the course of the day covered a wide range of issues. Institutions and publishers offered a range of different perspectives, but there was a striking commonality in the challenges faced, and a high degree of consensus on what is needed to address them:
Author engagement – Author engagement is crucial to the success of open access, but the complexity of the process at present means many need support at an early stage. This requires a fundamental shift from a two-way relationship between author and publisher, to a three- or four-way relationship that also involves the institution and potentially an external funder.
Streamlining the APC process – Workflows for handling APCs remain unstable, with institutions and publishers both grappling with the need to constantly adapt processes and systems as volumes rise. Greater consistency and automation is needed if efficiencies are to be achieved.
Copyright and licensing – Authors lack familiarity with the range of licensing options available and the licensing requirements of funders. Direct engagement between publishers and institutional  administrators can help address this in the short term, but in the long term authors must be equipped to make informed licensing choices that take account of funder mandates.
Management and billing of APCs – The payment of individual APC invoices is not a sustainable solution for either institutions or publishers, but some institutions have concerns over a loss of transparency where alternative models are used. The complex relationships among APC pricing, subscription revenues, licensing, and embargo periods remain a subject for debate.
Standards and interoperability – The need to improve sharing of information through development of common vocabularies and data standards was universally agreed. Identification of suitable persistent identifiers is part of the solution, but even where these exist low levels of uptake remain a concern.
Reporting and compliance – Achieving compliance with funder requirements places a significant burden on institutional administrators, and results in growing demands for information from publishers. »

URL : http://www.copyright.com/content/dam/cc3/marketing/documents/pdfs/Report-Making-Open-Access-Work.pdf

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