Mots-clefs: open data Afficher/masquer les discussions | Raccourcis clavier

  • Hans Dillaerts le 28 March 2014 à 13 h 40 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: open data   

    Towards an understanding of Web growth: an empirical study of socio-technical web activity of Open Government Data :

    « This thesis proposes a new interdisciplinary approach to understanding how the World Wide Web is growing, as a socio technical network, co-constructed by interrelationships between society and technological developments. The thesis uses a longitudinal empirical case study of Web and offline activity surrounding the UK Open Government Data communityto explore the Web as a socio-technical `networks of networks’. It employs a mixed methods framework, underpinned by sociological theory but also drawing on computer science for technical approaches to the problem of understanding theWeb. The study uses quantitative and qualitative sources of data in a novel analysis of online and offline activities to explore the formation and growth of UK Open Government Data and to understand this case, and the Web itself. The thesis argues that neither technology nor `the social’ alone is sufficient to explain the growth of this network, or indeed the Web, but that these networks develop out of closely co-constructed relationships and interactions between humans and technology. This thesis has implications not only for how the Web is understood, but for the kinds of future technological design and social activity that will be implicated in its continued growth. »

    URL : http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/362306/

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 25 February 2014 à 12 h 28 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , open data,   

    De l’Open data à l’Open research data : quelle(s) politique(s) pour les données de recherche? :

    « Le mouvement du libre-accès aux publications scientifiques s’élargit de plus en plus aux données de la recherche. Des initiatives pour garantir l’accessibilité et la complète réutilisation de ces données sont prises par une grande diversité d’acteurs – États, agences de financement de la recherche, éditeurs, communautés scientifiques. L’ouverture des données de la recherche est rendue possible par la définition de politiques incitatives ou contraignantes, l’adoption de solutions juridiques et techniques, mais repose avant tout sur de bonnes pratiques de gestion des données. Tandis que la France s’insère progressivement dans la dynamique de l’Open research data, les universités sont appelées à définir leur politique de données. Les bibliothécaires ont un rôle majeur à jouer dans l’élaboration de ces politiques, peuvent contribuer à identifier les besoins des chercheurs et les assister sur le volet « métadonnées ». Aussi, la question de l’ouverture des données de recherche offre une opportunité unique à ces professionnels de la documentation : celle de remodeler, à l’échelle des établissements de recherche, leur(s) lien(s) avec la communauté des chercheurs. »

    URL : De l’Open Data à l’Open research data

    URL alternative : http://www.enssib.fr/bibliotheque-numerique/notices/64131-de-l-open-data-a-l-open-research-data-quelles-politiques-pour-les-donnees-de-recherche

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 19 February 2014 à 17 h 44 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , open data   

    Sustaining Domain Repositories for Digital Data: A White Paper :

    « The last few years have seen a growing international movement to enhance research transparency, open access to data, and data sharing across the social and natural sciences. Meanwhile, new technologies and scientific innovations are vastly increasing the amount of data produced and the resultant potential for advancing knowledge. Domain repositories — data archives with ties to specific scientific communities — have an indispensable role to play in this changing data ecosystem. With both content-area and digital curation expertise, domain repositories are uniquely capable of ensuring that data and other research products are adequately preserved, enhanced, and made available for replication, collaboration, and cumulative knowledge building. However, the systems currently in place for funding repositories in the US are inadequate for these tasks. Effective and innovative funding models are needed to ensure that research data, so vital to the scientific enterprise, will be available for the future. Funding models also need to assure equal access to data preservation and curation services regardless of the researcher’s institutional affiliation. Creating sustainable funding streams requires coordination amongst multiple stakeholders in the scientific, archival, academic, funding, and policy communities. »

    URL : http://datacommunity.icpsr.umich.edu/sites/default/files/WhitePaper_ICPSR_SDRDD_121113.pdf

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 17 January 2014 à 14 h 56 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , , , open data, ,   

    Study on the protection of research data and recommendations for access and usage :

    « This study is basically divided into four parts. Its objective is to examine the legal requirements for different kinds of usage of research data in an open access infrastructure, such as OpenAIREplus, which links them to publications.
    Within the first part, the requirements for legal protection of research data are analysed. In the process, the existing legal framework regarding potentially relevant intellectual property (IP) rights is analysed from different perspectives: first from the general European perspective and subsequently from that of selected EU Member States (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and the UK).
    It should be noted that the European legal framework is partly harmonised in the field of copyright and largely harmonised in the field of the sui generis database protection right by EU directives. Thus, the national regulations are quite similar in many respects. National differences are described following the section on national implementation in Chapter 2.5.
    Despite European harmonisation, the perhaps surprising outcome of the analysis is that there are some areas of dis-harmonisation between the different Member States. One very significant example of dis-harmonisation is the “exception for scientific research” to the sui generis database right. It is not mandatory for this exception to be introduced into national legislation and it seems that every Member State has its own interpretation of the underlying directive. As it is drafted at the moment, the exception is to all intents and purposes useless.
    Another area that causes difficulties is the question of who becomes the rightholder of the sui generis right in a database that is created by a public body or in the course of publicly funded research. Indeed it is far from clear. Some might say the research institution or the funding agency or both become the rightholder. But of the legal regimes under consideration in this study, the only jurisdiction with clear regulation on this matter is the Netherlands and it generally denies a public authority the right to exercise the exclusive database right.
    Additionally, it is still unclear whether linking, or at least deep linking, should be seen as a relevant act of communication to the public. There are contradictory judgments at the level of the Member States. However, at least this question will soon be clarified in the scope of an actual reference to the European Court of Justice(ECJ).

    The second part of the study is dedicated to the scope of protection of the potentially relevant IP rights. First there is an analysis of whether different types of usage, such as linking, access or mining, infringe the different kinds of IP rights. Secondly, a “legal prototype of an e-infrastructure”, based on selected usage scenarios that may occur during the use of e-infrastructures such as OpenAIREplus, is evaluated in more detail. The main outcome of this second part is that by far the most important IP right in the context of e-infrastructures such as OpenAIREplus is the sui generis database right, and that it is very likely not possible to use all the described einfrastructure features without the consent of the respective rightholder(s).

    The third part is an examination of some relevant licensing issues. Within this part of the study, different licence models are analysed in order to identify the licence that is best suited to the aim of Open Access, especially in the context of the infrastructure of OpenAIREplus. The result is that the upcoming CC License version 4.0 will probably be the one best suited to this kind of infrastructure. Within the last part, some recommendations are given on improving the rights situation in relation to research data. To respond to the fact that the scientific research exception as presently formulated is rather useless, it is suggested that a new and broader mandatory research exception be introduced on a European level. To achieve legal interoperability of different databases and e-infrastructures, it is recommended that all of them should license their data under the upcoming CC License version 4.0. »

    URL : Study on the protection of research data and recommendations for access and usage

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 6 November 2013 à 13 h 01 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , open data   

    Ouverture des données publiques – Les exceptions au principe de gratuité sont-elles toutes légitimes ? :

    « Lors du premier Comité interministériel pour la modernisation de l’action publique (CIMAP), organisé le 18 décembre 2012, le Gouvernement a réaffirmé « le principe de gratuité de la réutilisation des données publiques » (la demande d’une redevance étant l’exception) et a souhaité « l’étendre, en concertation, aux collectivités, aux délégataires de service public, à la sphère sociale et aux autorités administratives indépendantes». Il a décidé de « confier au SGMAP, en lien avec le ministère du budget, la mission d’évaluer les modèles économiques des redevances existantes, notamment en auditant les coûts et les recettes associés ». M. Trojette, à qui a été confiée cette mission, recense 27 catégories de données soumises à redevances. Il constate que celles-ci produisent des revenus décroissants (35 millions d’euros en 2012, -33% par rapport à 2010) et que 90% de ces revenus se concentrent sur dix jeux de données, généralement vendus par des opérateurs dédiés à la production de données. Le rapport apporte également des éclaircissements sur le cadre juridique applicable aux différentes formes de redevances. Il analyse également les raisons qui devraient conduire, à moyen terme, à l’extinction des modèles économiques fondés sur la vente de données brutes. »

    URL : http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/rapports-publics/134000739-ouverture-des-donnees-publiques-les-exceptions-au-principe-de-gratuite-sont-elles

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 2 October 2013 à 18 h 46 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , open data   

    Open Data as a Foundation for Innovation: The Enabling Effect of Free Public Sector Information for Entrepreneurs :

    « Public open data access has a direct impact on future IT entrepreneurs’ perception of ability to execute their business plans. Using high quality (50%–98% response rate) survey data from 138 Swedish IT-entrepreneurs, we find that access to public open data is considered very important for many IT-startups; 43% find open data essential for the realization of their business plan and 82% claim that access would support and strengthen the business plan. The survey also indicates a significant interest in, and willingness to pay for, public sector information data from companies that do not intend to commercialize data themselves but intend to use it to support or test other business models. From the survey, it is possible to infer that the previous discourse on open data, viewing it as a means for government accountability or e-government, or as the foundation for the commercialization of public sector information data is too limited. Open data should instead be seen as an enabler of innovation outside these traditional sectors. This also indicates that the previously calculated societal values of open data might be underestimated. »

    URL : http://works.bepress.com/jan_kallberg/18/

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 22 August 2013 à 17 h 04 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , open data, ,   

    Open Data Access Policies and Strategies in the European Research Area and Beyond :

    « This report examines policies and strategies towards open access (OA) of scientific data in the European Research Area (ERA), Brazil, Canada, Japan and the US from 2000 onwards. The analysis examines strategies that aim to foster OA scientific data—such as the types of incentives given at the researcher and institutional levels and the level of compliance by researchers and funded organisations —and also examines how, and whether, these policies are monitored and enforced. The infrastructures developed to store and share OA scientific data are also examined. The analysis is supported by findings from the literature on the global progression of OA scientific data since 2000—including its growth as a segment of scholarly publishing—as well as some of the broader trends, themes and debates that have emerged from the movement. »

    URL : http://www.science-metrix.com/pdf/SM_EC_OA_Data.pdf

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 1 July 2013 à 17 h 58 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: open data, , , ,   

    Toward Reproducible Computational Research: An Empirical Analysis of Data and Code Policy Adoption by Journals :

    « Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012) for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing, supplemental materials, and open access policies in 2011 and 2012 for these 170 journals. »

    URL : http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0067111

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 8 December 2012 à 15 h 15 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , open data,   

    Le mouvement  » Open Data  » dans la grande transformation des intelligences collectives et face à la question des écritures, du web sémantique et des ontologies :

    « Le capitalisme cognitif a deux caractéristiques principales, l’intelligence collective et l’utilisation intensive des technologies de l’information, fondées sur la numérisation du contenu, des procédures et des écritures. Dans cet article, nous essayons d’examiner le mouvement Open Data face à la transformation des intelligences collectives et analysons ce processus dans le cadre de l’action publique, de la science, de l’intelligence logicielle, de la stratégie. Nous montrons comment ce mouvement s’articule avec la question du web sémantique, des ontologies, avec la montée de l’algorithmique. Dans ce cadre, l’émergence du  » data mining » se présente comme « récit impérial », comme le récit des sociétés performatives. S’ouvre également la possibilité de nouveaux modes de gouvernance, l’émergence de nouvelles façons de penser le politique et l’espace public. »

    « Cognitive capitalism has two main characteristics, collective intelligence and the intensive use of information technology, based on the digitization of content, procedures and writings. In this paper, we try to examine the Open Data movement faced with the transformation of collective intelligence. We analyze this process in the context of public policy, science, intelligence software. We show how this movement articulates with the issue of semantic web ontologies and with the rise of algorithmic. We emphasize, indirectly but strong, on the emergence of « data mining » as « imperial narrative, » as the story of performative societies in the context of anthropological stratum Internet. We outline the possibility of new modes of governance and the emergence of new ways of thinking about politics and public space. The future of democratic societies is partly at stake. »

    URL : http://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic_00759618

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 8 November 2012 à 19 h 12 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , open data   

    La politique d’accès aux documents publics : étude comparative entre les États-Unis, la France et le Royaume-Uni :

    « Cette étude comparative sur la politique d’accès aux documents publics explore la littérature afin de comprendre comment l’usage des TIC, associé aux réformes politiques, a une incidence sur la vie politique. Nos recherches, placées dans une perspective historique, ont permis de retracer les principaux changements dans chaque pays étudiés et de faire ressortir les actions les plus significatives en faveur de plus de transparence, de plus de responsabilité reddition de compte. Il en ressort que le pays le plus en avance dans la mise à disposition des données publiques et la sollicitation citoyenne est le Royaume-Uni, suivi par les Etats-Unis. En France, ces initiatives sont encore à l’état de projet ou à leurs premiers balbutiements. »

    URL : http://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic_00747275

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