Cette communication veut contribuer à une analyse critique du big data et de l’open data en convoquant le concept d’asymétrie pour une lecture géopolitique des données massives, dans la filiation de certains travaux antérieurs sur la géopolitique du Cyberespace.
La géopolitique des données (nous adoptons ici une définition extensive de la notion de « données ») est mise en perspective entre les enjeux de l’économie numérique et de l’apparente gratuité et les enjeux de la sécurité, des droits fondamentaux difficilement convergents.
La grille de lecture s’appuie sur l’analyse de plusieurs asymétries installant des déséquilibres mondiaux : l’asymétrie technologique conférant à quelques acteurs un pouvoir central en terme de capacité de stockage, de calculateurs et de savoir-faire pour le traitement informatique des données à l’échelle mondiale ; l’asymétrie de la collecte des données et notamment le pouvoir des plateformes d’intermédiation notamment les GAFA (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon) et les data brokers spécialisés dans chaque secteur ; l’asymétrie de cadres législatifs qui confère à certaines zones géographiques des avantages de développement économique au détriment de protections plus attentives à la vie privée et enfin une asymétrie entre les acteurs produisant des contenus et les nouveaux acteurs du numérique revendiquant une ouverture sans barrière de ces contenus à leurs algorithmes dans une vision d’innovations de services.
URL : http://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic_01304035
This paper presents an exploration of the concept of research transparency. The policy context is described and situated within the broader arena of open science. This is followed by commentary on transparency within the research process, which includes a brief overview of the related concept of reproducibility and the associated elements of research integrity, fraud and retractions.
A two-dimensional model or continuum of open science is considered and the paper builds on this foundation by presenting a three-dimensional model, which includes the additional axis of ‘transparency’. The concept is further unpacked and preliminary definitions of key terms are introduced: transparency, transparency action, transparency agent and transparency tool.
An important linkage is made to the research lifecycle as a setting for potential transparency interventions by libraries. Four areas are highlighted as foci for enhanced engagement with transparency goals: Leadership and Policy, Advocacy and Training, Research Infrastructures and Workforce Development.
Open data has the potential to improve the governance of universities as public institutions. In addition, open data is likely to increase the quality, efficacy and efficiency of the research and analysis of higher education systems by providing a shared empirical base for critical interrogation and reinterpretation.
Drawing on research conducted by the Emerging Impacts of Open Data in Developing Countries project, and using an ecosystems approach, this research paper considers the supply, demand and use of open data as well as the roles of intermediaries in the governance of South African public higher education.
It shows that government’s higher education database is a closed and isolated data source in the data ecosystem; and that the open data that is made available by government is inaccessible and rarely used. In contrast, government data made available by data intermediaries in the ecosystem are being used by key stakeholders.
Intermediaries are found to play several important roles in the ecosystem: (i) they increase the accessibility and utility of data; (ii) they may assume the role of a ‘keystone species’ in a data ecosystem; and (iii) they have the potential to democratise the impacts and use of open data.
The article concludes that despite poor data provision by government, the public university governance open data ecosystem has evolved because intermediaries in the ecosystem have reduced the viscosity of government data. Further increasing the fluidity of government open data will improve access and ensure the sustainability of open data supply in the ecosystem.
URL : http://hdl.handle.net/11427/14654
This paper presents the findings of the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community. It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing.
URL : Open Data in Global Environmental Research: The Belmont Forum’s Open Data Survey
The purpose of this paper is to examine funding models for Open Access (OA) digital data repositories whose costs are not wholly core funded. Whilst such repositories are free to access, they are not without significant cost to build and maintain and the lack of both full core costs and a direct funding stream through payment-for-use poses a considerable financial challenge, placing their future and the digital collections they hold at risk.
The authors document 14 different potential funding streams for OA digital data repositories, grouped into six classes (institutional, philanthropy, research, audience, service, volunteer), drawing on the ongoing experiences of seeking a sustainable funding for the Digital Repository of Ireland (DRI).
There is no straight forward solution to funding OA digital data repositories that are not wholly core funded, with a number of general and specific challenges facing each repository, and each funding model having strengths and weaknesses. The proposed DRI solution is the adoption of a blended approach that seeks to ameliorate cyclical effects across funding streams by generating income from a number of sources rather than overly relying on a single one, though it is still reliant on significant state core funding to be viable.
The detailing of potential funding streams offers practical financial solutions to other OA digital data repositories which are seeking a means to become financially sustainable in the absence of full core funding.
The review assesses and provides concrete advice with respect to potential funding streams in order to help repository owners address the financing conundrum they face.
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/OIR-01-2015-0031
« Ce livre blanc propose de faire un état des lieux sur le mouvement open data et les données ouvertes. Il présente notamment les aspects clés du sujet (juridiques, techniques, économiques), afin que tous ceux qui veulent se lancer dans l’aventure de l’open data puissent mieux en évaluer la nature et les multiples facettes. »
URL : https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01162692
« One essential characteristic of open data ecosystems is their development through feedback loops, discussions and dynamic data suppliers – user interactions. These user-centric features communicate the users’ needs to the open data community, as well to the public sector organizations responsible for data publication. Addressing these needs by the corresponding public sector organizations, or even by utilising the power of the community as ENGAGE supports, can significantly promote and accelerate innovation. However, such elements appear barely to be part of existing open data practices in the public sector. A survey we conducted has shown that professional open data users find the feedback and discussion on open data infrastructures from their users to their providers as highly useful and important, but they state that they do not know at least one open data infrastructure that provides various types of discussion, and feedback mechanisms.
In this paper we describe and discuss an open data platform, which contributes to filling this gap and also present a usage scenario of it, explaining the sequence of using its functionality. The discussed open data infrastructure combines functionalities that aim to close the feedback loop and to return information to public authorities that can be useful for better government data opening and publication, as well as establishing communication channels between all stakeholders. This may effectively lead to the stimulation and facilitation of value generation from open data, as such functionality positions the user at the centre of the open data publication process. »
URL : A Platform for Closing the Open Data Feedback Loop Based on Web2.0 Functionality
Alternative URL : http://www.jedem.org/article/view/327/270