A Platform for Closing the Open Data Feedback Loop Based on Web2.0 Functionality

« One essential characteristic of open data ecosystems is their development through feedback loops, discussions and dynamic data suppliers – user interactions. These user-centric features communicate the users’ needs to the open data community, as well to the public sector organizations responsible for data publication. Addressing these needs by the corresponding public sector organizations, or even by utilising the power of the community as ENGAGE supports, can significantly promote and accelerate innovation. However, such elements appear barely to be part of existing open data practices in the public sector. A survey we conducted has shown that professional open data users find the feedback and discussion on open data infrastructures from their users to their providers as highly useful and important, but they state that they do not know at least one open data infrastructure that provides various types of discussion, and feedback mechanisms.

In this paper we describe and discuss an open data platform, which contributes to filling this gap and also present a usage scenario of it, explaining the sequence of using its functionality. The discussed open data infrastructure combines functionalities that aim to close the feedback loop and to return information to public authorities that can be useful for better government data opening and publication, as well as establishing communication channels between all stakeholders. This may effectively lead to the stimulation and facilitation of value generation from open data, as such functionality positions the user at the centre of the open data publication process. »

URL : A Platform for Closing the Open Data Feedback Loop Based on Web2.0 Functionality

Alternative URL : http://www.jedem.org/article/view/327/270

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Issues in the development of open access to research data

« This paper explores key issues in the development of open access to research data. The use of digital means for developing, storing and manipulating data is creating a focus on ‘data-driven science’. One aspect of this focus is the development of ‘open access’ to research data. Open access to research data refers to the way in which various types of data are openly available to public and private stakeholders, user communities and citizens. Open access to research data, however, involves more than simply providing easier and wider access to data for potential user groups. The development of open access requires attention to the ways data are considered in different areas of research. We identify how open access is being unevenly developed across the research environment and the consequences this has in terms of generating data gaps. Data gaps refer to the way data becomes detached from published conclusions. To address these issues, we examine four main areas in developing open access to research data: stakeholder roles and values; technological requirements for managing and sharing data; legal and ethical regulations and procedures; institutional roles and policy frameworks. We conclude that problems of variability and consistency across the open access ecosystem need to be addressed within and between these areas to ensure that risks surrounding a data gap are managed in open access. »

URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08109028.2014.956505

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Publishing the British National Bibliography as Linked Open Data

« This paper describes the development of a linked data instance of the British National Bibliography (BNB) by the British Library. The focus is on the development of an RDF (Resource Description Framework) data model and the technical process to convert MARC 21 Bibliographic Data to Linked Data using existing resources. BNB was launched as linked open data in 2011 on a Talis platform. In 2013 it was migrated to a new platform, hosted by TSO. The paper discusses issues arising from the development, implementation and running of a linked data service. It also looks ahead to plans for future developments »

URL : Publishing the British National Bibliography as Linked Open Data

Alternative URL : http://www.bl.uk/bibliographic/pdfs/publishing_bnb_as_lod.pdf

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The Dawn of Open Access to Phylogenetic Data

« The scientific enterprise depends critically on the preservation of and open access to published data. This basic tenet applies acutely to phylogenies (estimates of evolutionary relationships among species). Increasingly, phylogenies are estimated from increasingly large, genome-scale datasets using increasingly complex statistical methods that require increasing levels of expertise and computational investment. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic data provide an explicit historical perspective that critically informs research in a vast and growing number of scientific disciplines. One such use is the study of changes in rates of lineage diversification (speciation – extinction) through time. As part of a meta-analysis in this area, we sought to collect phylogenetic data (comprising nucleotide sequence alignment and tree files) from 217 studies published in 46 journals over a 13-year period. We document our attempts to procure those data (from online archives and by direct request to corresponding authors), and report results of analyses (using Bayesian logistic regression) to assess the impact of various factors on the success of our efforts. Overall, complete phylogenetic data for of these studies are effectively lost to science. Our study indicates that phylogenetic data are more likely to be deposited in online archives and/or shared upon request when: (1) the publishing journal has a strong data-sharing policy; (2) the publishing journal has a higher impact factor, and; (3) the data are requested from faculty rather than students. Importantly, our survey spans recent policy initiatives and infrastructural changes; our analyses indicate that the positive impact of these community initiatives has been both dramatic and immediate. Although the results of our study indicate that the situation is dire, our findings also reveal tremendous recent progress in the sharing and preservation of phylogenetic data. »

URL : The Dawn of Open Access to Phylogenetic Data

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110268

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7R Data Value Framework for Open Data in Practice: Fusepool

« Based on existing literature, this article makes a case for open (government) data as supporting political efficiency, socio-economic innovation and administrative efficiency, but also finds a lack of measurable impact. It attributes the lack of impact to shortcomings regarding data access (must be efficient) and data usefulness (must be effective). To address these shortcomings, seven key activities that add value to data are identified and are combined into the 7R Data Value Framework, which is an applied methodology for linked data to systematically address both technical and social shortcomings. The 7R Data Value Framework is then applied to the international Fusepool project that develops a set of integrated software components to ease the publishing of open data based on linked data and associated best practices. Real-life applications for the Dutch Parliament and the Libraries of Free University of Berlin are presented, followed by a concluding discussion. »

URL: 7R Data Value Framework for Open Data in Practice: Fusepool

Alternative URL: http://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/6/3/556

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Assessing Social Value in Open Data Initiatives: A Framework

« Open data initiatives are characterized, in several countries, by a great extension of the number of data sets made available for access by public administrations, constituencies, businesses and other actors, such as journalists, international institutions and academics, to mention a few. However, most of the open data sets rely on selection criteria, based on a technology-driven perspective, rather than a focus on the potential public and social value of data to be published. Several experiences and reports confirm this issue, such as those of the Open Data Census. However, there are also relevant best practices. The goal of this paper is to investigate the different dimensions of a framework suitable to support public administrations, as well as constituencies, in assessing and benchmarking the social value of open data initiatives. The framework is tested on three initiatives, referring to three different countries, Italy, the United Kingdom and Tunisia. The countries have been selected to provide a focus on European and Mediterranean countries, considering also the difference in legal frameworks (civic law vs. common law countries). »

URL : Assessing Social Value in Open Data Initiatives: A Framework

Alternative URL : http://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/6/3/498


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The evolution of open access to research and data in Australian higher education

« Open access (OA) in the Australian tertiary education sector is evolving rapidly and, in this article, we review developments in two related areas: OA to scholarly research publications and open data. OA can support open educational resource (OER) efforts by providing access to research for learning and teaching, and a range of actors including universities, their peak bodies, public research funding agencies and other organisations and networks that focus explicitly on OA are increasingly active in these areas in diverse ways. OA invites change to the status quo across the higher education sector and current momentum and vibrancy in this area suggests that rapid and significant changes in the OA landscape will continue into the foreseeable future. General practices, policies, infrastructure and cultural changes driven by the evolution of OA in Australian higher education are identified and discussed. The article concludes by raising several key questions for the future of OA research and open data policies and practices in Australia in the context of growing interest in OA internationally. »

URL : The evolution of open access to research and data in Australian higher education

Alternative URL : http://journals.uoc.edu/index.php/rusc/article/view/v11n3-picasso-phelan

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Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information

« Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights.

We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information.

Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an impediment to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge. Such differences should be removed by unifying exceptions and limitations for research purposes in a binding, Europe-wide regulation. »

URL : Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright

Alternative URL : http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/7717/abstract/open-exchange-of-scientific-knowledge-and-european-copyright-the-case-of-biodiversity-information

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Towards an understanding of Web growth an empirical…

Towards an understanding of Web growth: an empirical study of socio-technical web activity of Open Government Data :

« This thesis proposes a new interdisciplinary approach to understanding how the World Wide Web is growing, as a socio technical network, co-constructed by interrelationships between society and technological developments. The thesis uses a longitudinal empirical case study of Web and offline activity surrounding the UK Open Government Data communityto explore the Web as a socio-technical `networks of networks’. It employs a mixed methods framework, underpinned by sociological theory but also drawing on computer science for technical approaches to the problem of understanding theWeb. The study uses quantitative and qualitative sources of data in a novel analysis of online and offline activities to explore the formation and growth of UK Open Government Data and to understand this case, and the Web itself. The thesis argues that neither technology nor `the social’ alone is sufficient to explain the growth of this network, or indeed the Web, but that these networks develop out of closely co-constructed relationships and interactions between humans and technology. This thesis has implications not only for how the Web is understood, but for the kinds of future technological design and social activity that will be implicated in its continued growth. »

URL : http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/362306/

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De l’Open data à l’Open research data quelle…

De l’Open data à l’Open research data : quelle(s) politique(s) pour les données de recherche? :

« Le mouvement du libre-accès aux publications scientifiques s’élargit de plus en plus aux données de la recherche. Des initiatives pour garantir l’accessibilité et la complète réutilisation de ces données sont prises par une grande diversité d’acteurs – États, agences de financement de la recherche, éditeurs, communautés scientifiques. L’ouverture des données de la recherche est rendue possible par la définition de politiques incitatives ou contraignantes, l’adoption de solutions juridiques et techniques, mais repose avant tout sur de bonnes pratiques de gestion des données. Tandis que la France s’insère progressivement dans la dynamique de l’Open research data, les universités sont appelées à définir leur politique de données. Les bibliothécaires ont un rôle majeur à jouer dans l’élaboration de ces politiques, peuvent contribuer à identifier les besoins des chercheurs et les assister sur le volet « métadonnées ». Aussi, la question de l’ouverture des données de recherche offre une opportunité unique à ces professionnels de la documentation : celle de remodeler, à l’échelle des établissements de recherche, leur(s) lien(s) avec la communauté des chercheurs. »

URL : De l’Open Data à l’Open research data

URL alternative : http://www.enssib.fr/bibliotheque-numerique/notices/64131-de-l-open-data-a-l-open-research-data-quelles-politiques-pour-les-donnees-de-recherche

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