Open data et droit de la donnée : les collectivités à l’épreuve des réglementations européennes

Auteurs/Authors : Dann Goncalves, Samuel Rufat

Les institutions européennes ont promu l’harmonisation, le partage et la réutilisation des données publiques et en particulier des données géographiques avec plusieurs directives entre 2003 et 2013.

Mais au cours des 10 dernières années, cette harmonisation et cette ouverture des données s’est révélée être un processus lent et nécessitant un important effort de la part de l’ensemble des acteurs publics, à différentes échelles. Et les collectivités locales semblent être « en retard » au regard des autres échelons européens.

Cet article fait l’hypothèse que le choix de la thématique environnementale correspondait à une stratégie de mobilisation des acteurs sur une dimension porteuse pour les citoyens européens, mais que ce choix n’était pas le plus adapté pour les collectivités territoriales.

L’article propose d’interroger à différentes échelles les difficultés réglementaires, techniques et politiques de mise en œuvre des réglementations européennes, d’harmonisation et d’ouverture des données géographiques.

Il s’appuie sur une enquête auprès des collectivités locales pour comparer les situations à l’échelle la plus fine en Espagne, en France, au Portugal et au Royaume-Uni.

URL : http://cybergeo.revues.org/27750

Discovery and Reuse of Open Datasets: An Exploratory Study

Authors : Sara Mannheimer, Leila Belle Sterman, Susan Borda

Objective

This article analyzes twenty cited or downloaded datasets and the repositories that house them, in order to produce insights that can be used by academic libraries to encourage discovery and reuse of research data in institutional repositories.

Methods

Using Thomson Reuters’ Data Citation Index and repository download statistics, we identified twenty cited/downloaded datasets. We documented the characteristics of the cited/downloaded datasets and their corresponding repositories in a self-designed rubric.

The rubric includes six major categories: basic information; funding agency and journal information; linking and sharing; factors to encourage reuse; repository characteristics; and data description.

Results

Our small-scale study suggests that cited/downloaded datasets generally comply with basic recommendations for facilitating reuse: data are documented well; formatted for use with a variety of software; and shared in established, open access repositories.

Three significant factors also appear to contribute to dataset discovery: publishing in discipline-specific repositories; indexing in more than one location on the web; and using persistent identifiers.

The cited/downloaded datasets in our analysis came from a few specific disciplines, and tended to be funded by agencies with data publication mandates.

Conclusions

The results of this exploratory research provide insights that can inform academic librarians as they work to encourage discovery and reuse of institutional datasets.

Our analysis also suggests areas in which academic librarians can target open data advocacy in their communities in order to begin to build open data success stories that will fuel future advocacy efforts.

URL : Discovery and Reuse of Open Datasets: An Exploratory Study

DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.7191/jeslib.2016.1091

Collaboration at International, National and Institutional Level – Vital in Fostering Open Science

Authors :Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen, Pirjo-Leena Forsström

Open science and open research provide potential for new discoveries and solutions to global problems, thus are automatically extending beyond the boundaries of an individual research laboratory.

By nature they imply and lead to collaboration among researchers. This collaboration should be established on all possible levels: institutional, national and international. The present paper looks at the situation in Finland, it shows how these collaborations are organized at the various levels.

The special role played by LIBER is evidenced. The advantages of these collaborations are highlighted.

URL : Collaboration at International, National and Institutional Level – Vital in Fostering Open Science

DOI : http://doi.org/10.18352/lq.10157

Enjeux géopolitiques des données, asymétries déterminantes

Cette communication veut contribuer à une analyse critique du big data et de l’open data en convoquant le concept d’asymétrie pour une lecture géopolitique des données massives, dans la filiation de certains travaux antérieurs sur la géopolitique du Cyberespace.

La géopolitique des données (nous adoptons ici une définition extensive de la notion de « données ») est mise en perspective entre les enjeux de l’économie numérique et de l’apparente gratuité et les enjeux de la sécurité, des droits fondamentaux difficilement convergents.

La grille de lecture s’appuie sur l’analyse de plusieurs asymétries installant des déséquilibres mondiaux : l’asymétrie technologique conférant à quelques acteurs un pouvoir central en terme de capacité de stockage, de calculateurs et de savoir-faire pour le traitement informatique des données à l’échelle mondiale ; l’asymétrie de la collecte des données et notamment le pouvoir des plateformes d’intermédiation notamment les GAFA (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon) et les data brokers spécialisés dans chaque secteur ; l’asymétrie de cadres législatifs qui confère à certaines zones géographiques des avantages de développement économique au détriment de protections plus attentives à la vie privée et enfin une asymétrie entre les acteurs produisant des contenus et les nouveaux acteurs du numérique revendiquant une ouverture sans barrière de ces contenus à leurs algorithmes dans une vision d’innovations de services.

URL : http://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic_01304035

Transparency: the emerging third dimension of Open Science and Open Data

This paper presents an exploration of the concept of research transparency. The policy context is described and situated within the broader arena of open science. This is followed by commentary on transparency within the research process, which includes a brief overview of the related concept of reproducibility and the associated elements of research integrity, fraud and retractions.

A two-dimensional model or continuum of open science is considered and the paper builds on this foundation by presenting a three-dimensional model, which includes the additional axis of ‘transparency’. The concept is further unpacked and preliminary definitions of key terms are introduced: transparency, transparency action, transparency agent and transparency tool.

An important linkage is made to the research lifecycle as a setting for potential transparency interventions by libraries. Four areas are highlighted as foci for enhanced engagement with transparency goals: Leadership and Policy, Advocacy and Training, Research Infrastructures and Workforce Development.

DOI: https://www.liberquarterly.eu/articles/10.18352/lq.10113/

Viscous open data: The roles of intermediaries in an open data ecosystem

Open data has the potential to improve the governance of universities as public institutions. In addition, open data is likely to increase the quality, efficacy and efficiency of the research and analysis of higher education systems by providing a shared empirical base for critical interrogation and reinterpretation.

Drawing on research conducted by the Emerging Impacts of Open Data in Developing Countries project, and using an ecosystems approach, this research paper considers the supply, demand and use of open data as well as the roles of intermediaries in the governance of South African public higher education.

It shows that government’s higher education database is a closed and isolated data source in the data ecosystem; and that the open data that is made available by government is inaccessible and rarely used. In contrast, government data made available by data intermediaries in the ecosystem are being used by key stakeholders.

Intermediaries are found to play several important roles in the ecosystem: (i) they increase the accessibility and utility of data; (ii) they may assume the role of a ‘keystone species’ in a data ecosystem; and (iii) they have the potential to democratise the impacts and use of open data.

The article concludes that despite poor data provision by government, the public university governance open data ecosystem has evolved because intermediaries in the ecosystem have reduced the viscosity of government data. Further increasing the fluidity of government open data will improve access and ensure the sustainability of open data supply in the ecosystem.

URL : http://hdl.handle.net/11427/14654

Open Data in Global Environmental Research: The Belmont Forum’s Open Data Survey

This paper presents the findings of the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community. It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing.

URL : Open Data in Global Environmental Research: The Belmont Forum’s Open Data Survey

DOI :10.1371/journal.pone.0146695