Journal Data Sharing Policies and Statistical Reporting Inconsistencies in Psychology

Authors : Michele Nuijten, Jeroen Borghuis, Coosje Veldkamp, Linda Alvarez, Marcel van Assen, Jelte Wicherts

In this paper, we present three studies that investigate the relation between data sharing and statistical reporting inconsistencies. Previous research found that reluctance to share data was related to a higher prevalence of statistical errors, often in the direction of statistical significance (Wicherts, Bakker, & Molenaar, 2011).

We therefore hypothesized that journal policies about data sharing and data sharing itself would reduce these inconsistencies. In Study 1, we compared the prevalence of reporting inconsistencies in two similar journals on decision making with different data sharing policies.

In Study 2, we compared reporting inconsistencies in articles published in PLOS (with a data sharing policy) and Frontiers in Psychology (without a data sharing policy). In Study 3, we looked at papers published in the journal Psychological Science to check whether papers with or without an Open Practice Badge differed in the prevalence of reporting errors.

Overall, we found no relationship between data sharing and reporting inconsistencies. We did find that journal policies on data sharing are extremely effective in promoting data sharing.

We argue that open data is essential in improving the quality of psychological science, and we discuss ways to detect and reduce reporting inconsistencies in the literature.

DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/SGBTA

Open data et smart cities : quels chantiers pour les SIC?

Auteurs/Authors : Valentyna Dymytrova, Valérie Larroche, Françoise Paquienséguy, Marie-France Peyrelong

L’article rend compte des questionnements et analyses info-communicationnels en cours dans le cadre d’une ANR OpenSensingCity, regroupant outre les chercheurs en sciences de l’information et de la communication (équipe ELICO), des chercheurs en informatique (Armines de l’Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne) et des entreprises (Antidot et Hikob).

Nous nous intéressons particulièrement aux stratégies des acteurs constituant l’écosystème de l’Open data en lien avec les smart cities. Dans cet écosystème, l’attention se porte plus spécifiquement sur deux types d’acteurs : les collectivités territoriales et les réutilisateurs professionnels.

Les portails de l’Open data des collectivités territoriales sont étudiés par une approche sémio-pragmatique permettant d’analyser les stratégies éditoriales et la place de la Métropole dans l’écosystème.

Quant aux réutilisateurs, leurs usages et les pratiques professionnels sont saisis à travers les entretiens semi-discursifs. Enfin, ces deux thématiques de smart cities et de l’Open data nous amènent à reconsidérer la question des communs.

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01543355

Afraid of Scooping – Case Study on Researcher Strategies against Fear of Scooping in the Context of Open Science

Author : Heidi Laine

The risk of scooping is often used as a counter argument for open science, especially open data. In this case study I have examined openness strategies, practices and attitudes in two open collaboration research projects created by Finnish researchers, in order to understand what made them resistant to the fear of scooping.

The radically open approach of the projects includes open by default funding proposals, co-authorship and community membership. Primary sources used are interviews of the projects’ founding members.

The analysis indicates that openness requires trust in close peers, but not necessarily in research community or society at large. Based on the case study evidence, focusing on intrinsic goals, like new knowledge and bringing about ethical reform, instead of external goals such as publications, supports openness.

Understanding fundaments of science, philosophy of science and research ethics, can also have a beneficial effect on willingness to share. Whether there are aspects in open sharing that makes it seem riskier from the point of view of certain demographical groups within research community, such as women, could be worth closer inspection.

URL : Afraid of Scooping – Case Study on Researcher Strategies against Fear of Scooping in the Context of Open Science

DOI : http://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2017-029

Towards certified open data in digital service ecosystems

Authors : Anne Immonen, Eila Ovaska, Tuomas Paaso

The opportunities of open data have been recently recognized among companies in different domains. Digital service providers have increasingly been interested in the possibilities of innovating new ideas and services around open data.

Digital service ecosystems provide several advantages for service developers, enabling the service co-innovation and co-creation among ecosystem members utilizing and sharing common assets and knowledge.

The utilization of open data in digital services requires new innovation practices, service development models, and a collaboration environment. These can be provided by the ecosystem. However, since open data can be almost anything and originate from different kinds of data sources, the quality of data becomes the key issue.

The new challenge for service providers is how to guarantee the quality of open data. In the ecosystems, uncertain data quality poses major challenges. The main contribution of this paper is the concept of the Evolvable Open Data based digital service Ecosystem (EODE), which defines the kinds of knowledge and services that are required for validating open data in digital service ecosystems.

Thus, the EODE provides business potential for open data and digital service providers, as well as other actors around open data. The ecosystem capability model, knowledge management models, and the taxonomy of services to support the open data quality certification are described.

Data quality certification confirms that the open data is trustworthy and its quality is good enough to be accepted for the usage of the ecosystem’s services. The five-phase open data quality certification process, according to which open data is brought to the ecosystem and certified for the usage of the digital service ecosystem members using the knowledge models and support services of the ecosystem, is also described.

The initial experiences of the still ongoing validation steps are summarized, and the concept limitations and future development targets are identified.

URL : Towards certified open data in digital service ecosystems

DOI : 10.1007/s11219-017-9378-2

Ouverture des données, Les enjeux des portails Opendata métropolitains

Auteurs/Authors : Françoise Paquienséguy,  Valentyna Dymytrova

La plupart des Métropoles se dotent de portails OpenData avec un triple objectif : ouvrir les données publiques ; permettre aux citoyens d’y accéder pour leur faciliter la vie et la prise de décision ; soutenir le développement économique du territoire en fournissant ces données à des ré-utilisateurs qui s’en servent pour créer des applications.

Autrement dit, devenir une smart city. Sur la base de la théorie de l’acteur-réseau de Latour (ANT) qui inclut les acteurs non-humains, ici les portails, complétée par une analyse sémio-pragmatique de plusieurs portails métropolitains, nous étudierons à la fois les enjeux en présence pour la Métropole et les acteurs du territoire et les contradictions qui surgissent lors de leur matérialisation dans un portail OpenData.

Si l’analyse globale porte sur 24 portails, seuls quelques-uns seront particulièrement développés lors de la communication : Grand Lyon Data, Rennes Métropole, Montpellier Méditerranée Métropole, Open Data Bordeaux, Berlin Open Data, London Datastore, New York Open Data et Séoul Open Data.

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01526769

Experiences in integrated data and research object publishing using GigaDB

Authors : Scott C Edmunds, Peter Li, Christopher I Hunter, Si Zhe Xiao, Robert L Davidson, Nicole Nogoy, Laurie Goodman

In the era of computation and data-driven research, traditional methods of disseminating research are no longer fit-for-purpose. New approaches for disseminating data, methods and results are required to maximize knowledge discovery.

The “long tail” of small, unstructured datasets is well catered for by a number of general-purpose repositories, but there has been less support for “big data”. Outlined here are our experiences in attempting to tackle the gaps in publishing large-scale, computationally intensive research.

GigaScience is an open-access, open-data journal aiming to revolutionize large-scale biological data dissemination, organization and re-use. Through use of the data handling infrastructure of the genomics centre BGI, GigaScience links standard manuscript publication with an integrated database (GigaDB) that hosts all associated data, and provides additional data analysis tools and computing resources.

Furthermore, the supporting workflows and methods are also integrated to make published articles more transparent and open. GigaDB has released many new and previously unpublished datasets and data types, including as urgently needed data to tackle infectious disease outbreaks, cancer and the growing food crisis.

Other “executable” research objects, such as workflows, virtual machines and software from several GigaScience articles have been archived and shared in reproducible, transparent and usable formats.

With data citation producing evidence of, and credit for, its use in the wider research community, GigaScience demonstrates a move towards more executable publications. Here data analyses can be reproduced and built upon by users without coding backgrounds or heavy computational infrastructure in a more democratized manner.

URL : Experiences in integrated data and research object publishing using GigaDB

DOI : http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00799-016-0174-6

Open data, [open] access: linking data sharing and article sharing in the Earth Sciences

Author : Samantha Teplitzky

Introduction

The norms of a research community influence practice, and norms of openness and sharing can be shaped to encourage researchers who share in one aspect of their research cycle to share in another.

Different sets of mandates have evolved to require that research data be made public, but not necessarily articles resulting from that collected data. In this paper, I ask to what extent publications in the Earth Sciences are more likely to be open access (in all of its definitions) when researchers open their data through the Pangaea repository.

Methods

Citations from Pangaea data sets were studied to determine the level of open access for each article.

Results

This study finds that the proportion of gold open access articles linked to the repository increased 25% from 2010 to 2015 and 75% of articles were available from multiple open sources.

Discussion

The context for increased preference for gold open access is considered and future work linking researchers’ decisions to open their work to the adoption of open access mandates is proposed.

URL : Open data, [open] access: linking data sharing and article sharing in the Earth Sciences

DOI : http://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2150