« Pour commencer, pourriez-vous définir ‘données de la recherche’ ? » Une tentative de réponse

Auteurs/Authors : Joachim Schöpfel, Eric Kergosien, Hélène Prost

Le projet D4Humanities s’inscrit dans le champ des Humanités numériques – comment permettre l’exploration des données de la recherche en SHS (corpus textuels ou oraux, données brutes, images…) avec des techniques numériques (text and data mining, cartographie, visualisation…) afin de construire un sens nouveau ?

Il s’inscrit dans la continuité des travaux du laboratoire GERiiCO et de ses partenaires à l’Université de Lille Sciences Humaines et Sociales (SCD, ED SHS, ANRT…) avec comme objectif d’accélérer la démarche des données de la recherche notamment par rapport aux doctorants et jeunes chercheurs, et de faciliter le montage d’un projet de recherche international.

En particulier, le projet contient trois volets : (1) Pratiques et besoins dans le domaine des données de la recherche (enquête qualitative des comportements, attitudes, motivations et besoins par rapport à la gestion et au partage des données de la recherche) ; (2) workflow pour le dépôt des données des doctorants en SHS (dépôt, préservation et diffusion des données via le service NAKALA de la TGIR Huma-Num) ; (3) recherche sur les données et les thèses (concept et typologie des données en SHS ; évolution des contenus, formats, structures et prescriptions des thèses dans l’environnement de l’Open Science).

Le projet sera mené avec l’ISN Oldenburg et d’autres partenaires étrangers ; il facilitera la création d’un consortium et le montage d’un projet de recherche dans les Humanités numériques sur les thèses de doctorat de l’avenir, avec un financement européen (H2020) ou franco-allemand (ANR/DFG).

Cette communication présente les grandes lignes de l’étude sur les données de l’axe 3, c’est-à-dire l’analyse du concept de données de la recherche, pour mieux cerner l’identification (granularité), pour mieux comprendre la distinction et les relations entre données primaires et secondaires et pour affiner la catégorisation des données en SHS. L’accent est mis sur une triple approche, conceptuelle, typologique et fonctionnelle.

URL : http://hal.univ-lille3.fr/hal-01530937

Ready for the future? A survey on open access with scientists from the French National Research Center (CNRS)

Authors : Joachim Schöpfel, Coline Ferrant, Francis André, Renaud Fabre

Purpose

The paper presents empirical evidence on the opinion and behaviour of French scientists (senior management level) regarding open access to scientific and technical information.

Approach

The results are part of a nationwide survey on scientific information and documentation with 432 directors of French public research laboratories conducted by the French Research Center CNRS in 2014.

Findings

1. The CNRS senior research managers (laboratory directors) globally share the positive opinion towards open access revealed by other studies with researchers from the UK, Germany, the United States and other countries. However, they are more supportive of open repositories (green road) than of OA journal publishing (gold).

2. The response patterns reveal a gap between generally positive opinions about open access and less supportive behaviours, principally publishing articles with APCs.

3. A small group of senior research managers does not seem to be interested in green or gold open access and reluctant to self-archiving and OA publishing.

4. Similar to other studies, the French survey confirms disciplinary differences, i.e. a stronger support for self-archiving of records and documents in HAL by scientists from
Mathematics, Physics and Informatics than from Biology, Earth Sciences and Chemistry; and more experience and positive feelings with open access publishing and payment of APCs in Biology than in Mathematics or in Social Sciences and Humanities. Disciplinary differences and specific French factors are discussed, in particular in the context of the new European policy in favour of Open Science.

Originality

For the first time, a nationwide survey was conducted with the senior research management level from all scientific disciplines.

The response rate was high (>30%), and the results provide good insight into the real awareness, support and uptake of open access by senior research managers who provide both models (examples for good practice) and opinion leadership.

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01399422

Open Access to Scientific Information in Emerging Countries

Author : Joachim Schöpfel

Access to information plays a critical role in supporting development. Open access to scientific information is one solution. Up to now, the open access movement has been most successful in the Western hemisphere.

The demand for open access is great in the developing world as it can contribute to solving problems related to access gaps. Five emerging countries, called BRICS — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa — play a specific and leading role with a significant influence on regional and global affairs because of their large and fast-growing national economies, their demography and geographic situation.

In order to better understand open access in each of the five countries, in this paper we take a look at specific conditions in each country, relying on data from information professionals and scientists from BRICS, with an empirical approach focused on country-specific characteristics and challenges.

URL : http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march17/schopfel/03schopfel.html

Open supply? On the future of document supply in the world of open science

Author : Joachim Schöpfel

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a personal viewpoint on the development of document supply in the context of the recent European Union (EU) decisions on open science.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides some elements to the usual questions of service development, about business, customers, added value, environment and objectives.

Findings

The EU goal for open science is 100 per cent available research results in 2020. To meet the challenge, document supply must change, include more and other content, serve different targets groups, apply innovative technology and provide knowledge. If not, document supply will become a marginalized library service.

Originality/value

Basically, open science is not library-friendly, and it does not offer a solution for the actual problems of document supply. But it may provide an opportunity for document supply to become a modern service able to deal with new forms of unequal access and digital divide.

URL : http://hal.univ-lille3.fr/hal-01408443

Open Access, Privacy, and Human Rights : A Case Study on Ethics in Library and Information Sciences Education

Author : Joachim Schöpfel

Purpose

How do students comment on ethical principles, which principles are important for their awareness of librarianship, how do they understand the relevance of human rights for their future work?

Methodology/approach

The case study presents the results of a lecture on information rights and ethics with 50 Master students in library and information sciences (LIS) at the University of Lille (France) in 2014–2015. Students were asked to comment on the core principles of the International Federation of Library Association (IFLA) Code of Ethics.

Findings

The students see the library as a privileged space of access to information, where the librarian takes on the function of a guardian of this specific individual freedom—a highly political role and task.

This opinion is part of a general commitment to open access and free flowing resources on Internet. They emphasize the social responsibility toward the society as a whole but most of all toward the individual patron as a real person, member of a cultural community, a social class or an ethnic group.

With regard to Human Rights, the students interpret the IFLA Code mainly as a code of civil, political, and critical responsibility to endorse the universal right of freedom of expression.

They see a major conflict between ethics and policy. The findings are followed by some recommendations for further development of LIS education, including internship, transversality, focus on conflicts and the students’ cognitive dissonance and teaching of social skills, in terms of work-based solidarity and collective choices.

Originality/value

The chapter is qualitative research based on empirical data from a French LIS Master program.

URL : http://hal.univ-lille3.fr/hal-01408444

Altmetrics and Grey Literature: Perspectives and Challenges

Authors : Joachim Schöpfel, Hélène Prost

Traditional metrics largely overlook grey literature. The new altmetrics introduced in 2010 as  » new, online scholarly tools (that allow) to make new filters  » (Altmetrics Manifesto), can include all kinds of scholarly output which makes them interesting for grey literature.

The topic of our paper is the connection between altmetrics and grey literature. Do altmetrics offer new opportunities for the development and impact of grey literature?

In particular, the paper explores how altmetrics could add value to grey literature, in particular how reference managers, repositories, academic search engines and social networks can produce altmetrics of dissertations, reports, conference papers etc.

We explore, too, how new altmetric tools incorporate grey literature as source for impact assessment, and if they do. The discussion analyses the potential but also the limits of the actual application of altmetrics to grey literatures and highlights the importance of unique identifiers, above all the DOI.

For the moment, grey literature missed the opportunity to get on board of the new movement.

However, getting grey literature into the heart of the coming mainstream adoption of altmetrics is not only essential for the future of grey literature in open science but also for academic and institutional control of research output and societal impact.This can be a special mission for academic librarians.

URL : http://hal.univ-lille3.fr/hal-01405443

Continuing Professional Education in Open Access : a French-German Survey

Authors : Achim Oßwald, Joachim Schöpfel, Bernard Jacquemin

While open access (OA) has become a significant part of scientific communication and academic publishing, qualification issues have been out of focus in the OA community until recent years.

Based on findings about the qualification for OA within university-based programs in France and Germany the authors surveyed continuing professional education activities regarding OA in both countries in the years 2012-2015.

The results indicate that there are different types of events qualifying for OA and reveal a lack of coherent concepts for different target groups. Until now traditional presentation formats have been dominant.

Formats for distance learning, like MOOCs or webinars, might serve different needs and interests.

URL : https://www.liberquarterly.eu/articles/10.18352/lq.10158/