The Global Information Technology Report 2010-2011 :
« Sweden and Singapore continue to top the rankings of The Global Information Technology Report 2010-2011, Transformations 2.0, released by the World Economic Forum, confirming the leadership of the Nordic countries and the Asian Tiger economies in adopting and implementing ICT advances for increased growth and development. Finland jumps to third place, while Switzerland and the United States are steady in fourth and fifth place respectively. The 10th anniversary edition of the report focuses on ICT’s power to transform society in the next decade through modernization and innovation.
The Nordic countries lead the way in leveraging ICT. With Denmark in 7th and Norway in 9th place, all are in the top 10, except for Iceland, which is ranked in 16th position. Led by Singapore in second place, the other Asian Tiger economies continue to make progress in the ranking, with both Taiwan, China and Korea improving five places to 6th and 10th respectively, and Hong Kong SAR following closely at 12th.
With a record coverage of 138 economies worldwide, the report remains the world’s most comprehensive and authoritative international assessment of the impact of ICT on the development process and the competitiveness of nations. The Networked Readiness Index (NRI) featured in the report examines how prepared countries are to use ICT effectively on three dimensions: the general business, regulatory and infrastructure environment for ICT; the readiness of the three key societal actors individuals, businesses and governments to use and benefit from ICT; and their actual usage of available ICT.
Under the theme Transformations 2.0, this 10th anniversary edition explores the coming transformations powered by ICT, with a focus on the impact they will have on individuals, businesses and governments over the next few years. »
Ecrit en 2007, après le Sommet Mondial de la Société de l’Information, organisé à Tunis en 2005, ce texte propose une réflexion approfondie et originale. Il a aujourd’hui, en ce début 2011, une pertinence renforcée qui donne à réfléchir sur notre “Société de l’information”. Avec la mondialisation, les TIC sont devenues prééminentes.
Le « DigiWorld » incluant notamment le secteur des télécommunications, focalisé autour des technologies, connaît une croissance exponentielle. L’horloge technologique rythme la dynamique de la SI à une cadence très élevée. Cette « horloge » imprime le tempo de l’économie mondiale. L’horloge économique suit le mouvement. Les nouvelles lois de l’économie et des réseaux imposent leurs mécanismes. L’économie des réseaux précise en particulier que « les forts se renforcent » et que « les faibles s’affaiblissent ».
Inexorablement. La rupture, visible à Tunis en 2005, entre les différents pavillons du Sommet Mondial de la Société de l’Information, est manifeste. La troisième horloge, l’horloge « humaine et sociale » montre qu’une majorité de l’humanité peine à s’approprier les technologies, à les rendre « utilisables ».
Cette horloge peut-elle être remise à l’heure ou bien les écarts ne sont-ils pas destinés à s’accroître ? L’essor des TIC n’a en aucune façon conduit à une résorption des fractures, contrairement à ce qui a été longtemps annoncé et qui reste une opinion dominante. Les TIC ne sont pas synonymes d’information, de connaissance et, de façon évidente, ne sont pas associées à une qualité de l’information améliorée.
Au contraire, les fractures s’approfondissent. Nous avons montré la disharmonie, la rupture croissante et d’une ampleur extrême entre les horloges technologique et économique d’une part et l’horloge humaine et sociale d’autre part. »
Parliaments in a democracy must be efficient in their operations, transparent in their actions and have strong ties to their citizens.
This second booklet in the new Office for Promotion of Parliamentary Democracy (OPPD) series offers a roadmap for Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) managers and other parliamentary officials responsible for overseeing ICT to assist them in the planning and development of computer and communication systems to support their respective legislative assemblies.
Intellectual Property in Publishing and Research: Open Access in Biotechnology, Life Sciences, and Software :
« We show some of the parallels between three sectors: (i) research, in particular research and scholarly publishing; (ii) software, and the diversity of its rights management ecosystem; and (iii) biotechnology, with its restricted intellectual property ecosystem and declining levels of innovation. A core aspect of the research process is to be found in scholarly publishing. Some of the most advanced forms of scholarly, research publishing, relating to publishing practices including citation, are evident in biotechnology and the life sciences. Motivation for Open Access, for example, is far and away the
most pronounced in the life sciences. We look at how this ties in with the evolution of the management, generally, of intellectual property. Computing, with its basis in computational reasoning, can and should play a central role in this evolution. In fact we can already discern a future view of pharmaceuticals as a new form of software. »
The University of Alicante’s institutional strategy to promote the open dissemination of knowledge :
« Purpose : Information and communication technologies have became pervasive in people’s lives and in this changing world education cannot remain anchored in old-fashioned models which ignore the evolution through which society is going. This paper seeks to present the gamble made by the University of Alicante (Spain) on the promotion of open knowledge.
Design/methodology/approach : The educational environment cannot continue to be fixed, closed and isolated, where students – assuming a basically passive role – receive standardised teaching. It must consequently experience a fast and decisive transformation which allows it, amongst other things, to respond to the new challenge posed by society: the need for all of us to share the knowledge we generate, so that further progress can be made.
Findings : The Institutional Repository (RUA) and the OpenCourseWare of the University of Alicante (OCW-UA) were conceived from the very beginning as related projects that could constitute consecutive phases in the open publication of knowledge. In this way the aim of presenting the promotion of open knowledge not as a series of discrete projects but as a global strategic gamble of the institution was achieved. In addition to the most visible educational benefits, this policy has had the virtue of favouring the assumption by the University of its role as an online provider of quality (scientific and teaching) content.
Originality/value : RUA is the storage place of all the teaching materials published by the University of Alicante’s teaching staff, which are retrieved from OCW-UA, while OCW-UA serves as an organisational model of teaching content self-archived by the teaching staff in RUA. The connection between the projects has allowed the presentation of the promotion of open knowledge as a global strategic gamble of the University, which has contributed to a greater acceptance by the teaching staff. This work is original in that it shows a successful experience of involvement by one university and its members in the promotion of open knowledge. »
Data Sharing, Latency Variables and the Science Commons :
« Over the past decade, the rapidly decreasing cost of computer storage and the increasing prevalence of high-speed Internet connections have fundamentally altered the way in which scientific research is conducted. Led by scientists in disciplines such as genomics, the rapid sharing of data sets and cross-institutional collaboration promise to increase scientific efficiency and output dramatically. As a result, an increasing number of public “commons” of scientific data are being created: aggregations intended to be used and accessed by researchers worldwide. Yet, the sharing of scientific data presents legal, ethical and practical challenges that must be overcome before such science commons can be deployed and utilized to their greatest potential. These challenges include determining the appropriate level of intellectual property protection for data within the commons, balancing the publication priority interests of data generators and data users, ensuring a viable economic model for publishers and other intermediaries and achieving the public benefits sought by funding agencies.
In this paper, I analyze scientific data sharing within the framework offered by organizational theory, expanding existing analytical approaches with a new tool termed “latency analysis.” I place latency analysis within the larger Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, as well as more recent variations of that framework. Latency analysis exploits two key variables that characterize all information commons: the rate at which information enters the commons (its knowledge latency) and the rate at which the knowledge in the commons becomes be freely utilizable (its rights latency). With these two variables in mind, one proceeds to a three-step analytical methodology that consists of (1) determining the stakeholder communities relevant to the information commons, (2) determining the policy objectives that are relevant to each stakeholder group, and (3) mediating among the differing positions of the stakeholder groups through adjustments to the latency variables of the commons.
I apply latency analysis to two well-known narratives of commons formation in the sciences: the field of genomics, which developed unique modes of rapid data sharing during the Human Genome Project and continues to influence data sharing practices in the biological sciences today; and the more generalized case of open access publishing requirements imposed on publishers by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and various research universities. In each of these cases, policy designers have used timing mechanisms to achieve policy outcomes. That is, by regulating the speed at which information is released into a commons, and then by imposing time-based restrictions on its use, policy designers have addressed the concerns of multiple stakeholders and established information commons that operate effectively and equitably. I conclude that the use of latency variables in commons policy design can, in general, reduce negotiation transaction costs, achieve efficient and equitable results for all stakeholders, and thereby facilitate the formation of socially-valuable commons of scientific information. »
URL : http://works.bepress.com/jorge_contreras/3