Afraid of Scooping – Case Study on Researcher Strategies against Fear of Scooping in the Context of Open Science

Author : Heidi Laine

The risk of scooping is often used as a counter argument for open science, especially open data. In this case study I have examined openness strategies, practices and attitudes in two open collaboration research projects created by Finnish researchers, in order to understand what made them resistant to the fear of scooping.

The radically open approach of the projects includes open by default funding proposals, co-authorship and community membership. Primary sources used are interviews of the projects’ founding members.

The analysis indicates that openness requires trust in close peers, but not necessarily in research community or society at large. Based on the case study evidence, focusing on intrinsic goals, like new knowledge and bringing about ethical reform, instead of external goals such as publications, supports openness.

Understanding fundaments of science, philosophy of science and research ethics, can also have a beneficial effect on willingness to share. Whether there are aspects in open sharing that makes it seem riskier from the point of view of certain demographical groups within research community, such as women, could be worth closer inspection.

URL : Afraid of Scooping – Case Study on Researcher Strategies against Fear of Scooping in the Context of Open Science


Un dispositif innovant d’éditorialisation en accès ouvert pour les SHS

Auteurs/Authors : Jérôme Valluy, Aurélie Veyron-Churlet, Serge Bouchardon

Ni « revue scientifique » au sens classique et toujours actuel, ni simple « bulletin d’annonces » des activités d’un laboratoire, les Cahiers Costech expérimentent un dispositif éditorial valorisant les travaux intermédiaires de la recherche (avec relectures et validations scientifiques) et la publication en accès ouvert (y compris par réédition de publications achevées mais peu accessibles), tout en favorisant un pluralisme organisationnel & intellectuel laissant aux chercheurs responsables de chaque rubrique le soin de définir leurs agendas scientifiques, les types de publications pertinents ainsi que leurs régimes de relectures et validations.

La valorisation de la « recherche en train de se faire » adopte des formats très divers de publications (communications et posters en colloques, notes de recherche, working papers, recensions, conférences et séminaires enregistrés, rapports de recherche, synthèses thématiques, compte-rendu de terrains…), en accès ouvert.

La « réédition en accès ouvert » respecte les droits des premiers éditeurs (ex. : publications de chapitres de livres avec leurs autorisations) et le droit des auteurs de réédition en accès ouvert de leurs publications 12 mois après parution en périodique (article 30 de la loi n° 2016-1321 du 7 octobre 2016).

Ce numéro 1 inaugure le dispositif éditorial conçu par le Costech-UTC, en assemblée générale et en conseil de laboratoire, après plusieurs mois de réflexions collectives sur les formes de communication scientifique à l’ère de l’éditorialisation numérique et de l’accès ouvert aux publications.

Pour les besoins de ce lancement, le premier numéro réunit une forte proportion de travaux issus des recherches internes au Costech-UTC mais la revue lancera des appels à contribution ouverts à tous les chercheurs travaillant sur le domaine des recherches technologiques en sciences humaines et sociales.

Ce type de recherches technologiques, portant sur des terrains socio-économiques contemporains, est présenté dans le rapport d’activité de l’unité Costech.

URL : Un dispositif innovant d’éditorialisation en accès ouvert pour les SHS

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Changes in the digital scholarly environment and issues of trust: An exploratory, qualitative analysis

Authors : Anthony Watkinson, David Nicholas, Clare Thornley, Eti Herman, Hamid R. Jamali, Rachel Volentine, Suzie Allard, Kenneth Levine, Carol Tenopir

The paper reports on some of the results of a research project into how changes in digital behaviour and services impacts on concepts of trust and authority held by researchers in the sciences and social sciences in the UK and the USA.

Interviews were used in conjunction with a group of focus groups to establish the form and topic of questions put to a larger international sample in an online questionnaire. The results of these 87 interviews were analysed to determine whether or not attitudes have indeed changed in terms of sources of information used, citation behaviour in choosing references, and in dissemination practices.

It was found that there was marked continuity in attitudes though an increased emphasis on personal judgement over established and new metrics. Journals (or books in some disciplines) were more highly respected than other sources and still the vehicle for formal scholarly communication.

The interviews confirmed that though an open access model did not in most cases lead to mistrust of a journal, a substantial number of researchers were worried about the approaches from what are called predatory OA journals. Established researchers did not on the whole use social media in their professional lives but a question about outreach revealed that it was recognised as effective in reaching a wider audience.

There was a remarkable similarity in practice across research attitudes in all the disciplines covered andin both the countries where interviews were held.


Factors Influencing Research Data Reuse in the Social Sciences : An Exploratory Study

Author : Renata Gonçalves Curty

The development of e-Research infrastructure has enabled data to be shared and accessed more openly. Policy mandates for data sharing have contributed to the increasing availability of research data through data repositories, which create favourable conditions for the re-use of data for purposes not always anticipated by original collectors.

Despite the current efforts to promote transparency and reproducibility in science, datare-use cannot be assumed, nor merely considered a ‘thrifting’ activity where scientists shop around in datarepositories considering only the ease of access to data.

The lack of an integrated view of individual, socialand technological influential factors to intentional and actual data re-use behaviour was the key motivatorfor this study. Interviews with 13 social scientists produced 25 factors that were found to influence theirperceptions and experiences, including both their unsuccessful and successful attempts to re-use data.

These factors were grouped into six theoretical variables: perceived benefits, perceived risks, perceived effort,social influence, facilitating conditions, and perceived re-usability.

These research findings provide an in-depth understanding about the re-use of research data in the context of open science, which can be valuablein terms of theory and practice to help leverage data re-use and make publicly available data moreactionable.

URL : Factors Influencing Research Data Reuse in the Social Sciences : An Exploratory Study


Où sont les données de la recherche ? : Essai de cartographie

Auteur/Author : Cécile Delay-Artous

La question émergente en France des données de la recherche se situe dans un cadre institutionnel foisonnant mais rigide, délicat à cerner. La recherche est aussi financée et évaluée au niveau européen.

Cette organisation nationale et européenne se double d’un aspect international inhérent à la recherche et aux échanges d’informations rapides et répétés, accélérés par le développement d’Internet.

Le labyrinthe institutionnel franco-européen se superpose ainsi avec le millefeuille international et disciplinaire du monde de la recherche. Enfin, la proximité de deux mouvements qui ne sont pourtant pas synonyme, l’Open Access et l’Open Data, vient encore troubler la compréhension de ce panorama.

Il n’est donc pas aisé de comprendre les rôles de chacun des acteurs quant aux données de la recherche. C’est à une clarification de ce paysage que nous nous proposons de participer, en initiant une cartographie des initiatives et acteurs visibles en France concernant les données des sciences humaines et sociales.


Big data challenges for the social sciences: from society and opinion to replications

Author : Dominique Boullier

Big Data dealing with the social produce predictive correlations for the benefit of brands and web platforms. Beyond « society » and « opinion » for which the text lays out a genealogy, appear the « traces » that must be theorized as « replications » by the social sciences in order to reap the benefits of the uncertain status of entities’ widespread traceability.

High frequency replications as a collective phenomenon did exist before the digital networks emergence but now they leave traces that can be computed. The third generation of Social Sciences currently emerging must assume the specific nature of the world of data created by digital networks, without reducing them to the categories of the sciences of « society » or « opinion ».

Examples from recent works on Twitter and other digital corpora show how the search for structural effects or market-style trade-offs are prevalent even though insights about propagation, virality and memetics could help build a new theoretical framework.


Obstacles to Scholarly Publishing in the Social Sciences and Humanities: A Case Study of Vietnamese Scholars

Authors : Phuong Dzung Pho, Thi Minh Phuong Tran

Publishing scientific research is very important in contributing to the knowledge of a discipline and in sharing research findings among scientists. Based on the quantity and quality of publications, one can evaluate the research capacity of a researcher or the research performance of a university or a country.

However, the number of quality publications in Vietnam is very low in comparison with those in the other countries in the region or in the world, especially in the fields of social sciences and humanities.

Employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches, the current study investigates university lecturers’ attitudes towards research and publication and the obstacles to local and international publication at one of the main universities in social sciences and humanities in Vietnam.

The study found the main barriers to publication are funding and time for research and publication, among many other obstacles. From the analysis of the data, the study would also argue that lecturers’ obstacles to publication may vary across faculties (or disciplines), ages, qualifications, education, research and publication experience.

The findings in this study may be applied to other institutions in Vietnam or in other countries where English is used as a foreign language.

URL : Obstacles to Scholarly Publishing in the Social Sciences and Humanities: A Case Study of Vietnamese Scholars