Contours du document numérique connecté

Auteur/Author : Evelyne Broudoux

Cette introduction à Cide s’attache à cerner une tendance de l’évolution du document numérique depuis sa théorisation interdisciplinaire par l’auteur collectif Pédauque en 2006, en un triangle constitué par la forme, le signe, la médiation.

La première observation est que les limites internes et externes au document numérique se sont modifiées depuis une dizaine d’années.

Trois types de documents en apportent la preuve : le document publié, connecté sur la toile ; le document-processus, support d’une collaboration ; le document support d’écrilecture.

Au document connecté sont associés des collections virtuelles que les moteurs de recommandations sont capables de constituer et diverses modalités d’annotations. Dans le document processus d’une collaboration, ce sont les éléments internes au document-container qui vont constituer des instances actualisables du document.

Le document support d’écrilecture est un document qui s’inscrit dans la tradition de la lecture-commentaire héritée des pratiques érudites d’exégèse des textes. Si l’annotation sémantique est un procédé qui vise à indexer une portion de texte à un thésaurus externe et à le relier à de futurs contextes de lecture, la commentarisation vise à procurer un feedback immédiat à l’auteur investi dans un travail d’écriture ou de publication.

L’examen de l’évolution de l’outillage de lecture d’articles scientifiques en ligne, des outils d’annotation et de commentarisation prouve qu’ils s’inscrivent dans la sémantisation du web. Nous ferons le constat qu’il existe une convergence entre l’approche structurelle et l’approche communicationnelle de Pédauque dans les projets d’humanités numériques.

URL : http://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic_01327851

Les archives de la recherche à l’Institut Pasteur : évolutions et perspectives

« Le but de cette communication est de présenter les moyens mis en œuvre jusqu’à présent par l’Institut Pasteur pour préserver ses archives. Il s’agira aussi d’évoquer, du fait des évolutions actuelles, les réflexions et projets en cours ou à venir. Depuis sa création en 1987, le service des archives de l’Institut Pasteur a orienté ses travaux suivant deux axes : la collecte, le classement et la description des principaux fonds d’archives historiques ainsi que la collecte systématique des archives des services scientifiques et administratifs de l’institution. Outre la richesse des fonds d’archives, une réelle complémentarité existe entre les dépôts de travaux scientifiques et le recueil des décisions administratives les concernant. Aujourd’hui, l’Institut Pasteur est confronté à l’augmentation de la masse des données/documents produits et reçus, à la prépondérance des données numériques, aux évolutions rapides du monde de la recherche… Une gestion plus rationnelle des données/documents est donc plus que jamais essentielle. Pour se faire, le service des archives élabore une politique d’archivage et redéfinit des procédures et des référentiels de conservation. Dans ce cadre, la collaboration avec les services transverses (service qualité, direction des systèmes d’information…) est également cruciale. De plus, le service des archives entend se rendre plus visible autant en interne (sensibilisation des pasteuriens, pages intranet, expositions…) qu’en externe (accueil de chercheurs notamment étrangers, site internet, numérisation d’archives, participation à des groupes de réflexion…). »

URL : Les archives de la recherche à l’Institut Pasteur : évolutions et perspectives

Alternative URL : http://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic_01094774

The Transnational and the Text-Searchable: Digitized Sources and the Shadows They Cast

« This working paper explores the consequences for historians’ research practice of the twinned transnational and digital turns. The accelerating digitization of historians’ sources (scholarly, periodical, and archival) and the radical shift in the granularity of access to information within them has radically changes historians’ research practice. Yet this has incited remarkably little reflection regarding the consequences for individual projects or collective knowledge generation. What are the implications for international research in particular? This essay heralds the new kinds of historical knowledge-generation made possible by web access to digitized, text-searchable sources. It also attempts an accounting of all that we formerly, unwittingly, gained from the frictions inherent to international research in an analog world. What are the intellectual and political consequences of that which has been lost? »

URL : http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/20882/

What Do Researchers Need? Feedback On Use of Online Primary Source Materials

« Cultural heritage institutions are increasingly providing online access to primary source materials for researchers. While the intent is to enable round-the-clock access from any location, few studies have examined the extent to which current web delivery is meeting the needs of users. Careful use of limited resources requires intelligent assessment of researcher needs in comparison to the actual online presentation, including access, retrieval and usage options. In the hopes of impacting future delivery methods and access development, this article describes the results of a qualitative study of 11 humanities faculty researchers at the University of Alabama, who describe and rate the importance of various issues encountered when using 29 participant-selected online databases. »

URL : http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july14/deridder/07deridder.html

Trust and Authority in Scholarly Communications in the…

Trust and Authority in Scholarly Communications in the Light of the Digital Transition: setting the scene for a major study :

« The paper provides the results of the first phase of the research project Trust and Authority in Scholarly Communications in the Light of the Digital Transition. It provides for an examination of the behaviours and attitudes of academic researchers as producers and consumers of scholarly information resources in the digital era in respect to how they determine authority and trustworthiness in the sources they use, cite, and publish in. The first phase of the study utilized focus groups to formulate research questions for the project as a whole. It provided the direction for the literature review, interviews, and questionnaires studies that would follow. Fourteen focus groups were held in the UK and US in order to obtain this information. A total of 66 science and social science researchers participated. The main findings were: (a) researchers play down difficulties of establishing trustworthiness, not because there are none, but because they have well-developed methods of establishing trust; (b) citation-derived metrics are becoming more important in regard to where researchers publish; (c) social media are ancillary to research, but are used for promotion of research and idea generation; (d) researchers are suspicious and confused about open access, but less so if produced by a traditional publisher; (e) there was a uniformity of perceptions/behaviour of researchers irrespective of differences in subject, country, and age; (f) although some early career researchers behave the same as their more senior colleagues this is because of a fear of the system: they actually think differently. »

URL : http://ciber-research.eu/download/20140406-Learned_Publishing_27_2-Trust.pdf

e-Browsing: Serendipity and questions of access and discovery

Browsing is an essential component to discovery. Understanding the foundations of browsing patterns and preferences is crucial in developing effective ebrowsing environments.

It’s important to understand how researchers in diverse disciplines have described their discoveries in terms of browsing, searching, and serendipitous encounters. Examining the works of scientists, social scientists, and humanists through the lens of discovery will reveal essential components to be aware of in developing ebrowsing environments.

In turning to a wide range of sources, often outside traditional library literature, we deepen our understanding of what it means to browse in an electronic environment. As librarians, we have an obligation to create physical and virtual spaces that cultivate wonder and curiosity and acknowledge varied paths to discovery.

Electronic browsing options must become more robust if libraries are to be vital to scholarly communication. In this presentation we focus on the language and experience of browsing, with particular attention to serendipitous discovery, in order to encourage librarians, particularly those in public service, to more effectively articulate concerns and opportunities to developers.

URL : http://repository.cmu.edu/lib_science/107/

Collaborative Improvements in the Discoverability of Scholarly Content…

Collaborative Improvements in the Discoverability of Scholarly Content : Accomplishments, Aspirations,
and Opportunities
:

« The life cycle of academic works is supported by extensive cross-sector collaboration throughout the scholarly communications ecosystem. In recent years, traditional codes of practice have been disturbed. In response, in 2012, SAGE published a white paper that offered conversation starters for reinventing conventions and relationships among libraries, publishers, and service providers. To carry on the investigation of the first white paper, Improving Discoverability of Scholarly Content in the Twentieth Century: Collaboration Opportunities for Librarians, Publishers, and Vendors, this paper explores the latest accomplishments, aspirations, opportunities, and challenges for improved discoverability of scholarly content. As the discovery landscape is rapidly shifting, this paper demonstrates that progress continues to depend on core principles of cross-sector collaboration, taking the form of these actionable recommendations for anyone in scholarly communications:
•Standards: When relevant, all sectors should participate in ratified standards to ensure that cooperation is part of business-as-usual routines.
•Transparency: Standards compliance is critical for successful discovery, and the development, implementation, and enforcement of these standards require open relationships across the industry
focused on reaching our shared goals.
•Metadata: Quality metadata, observing ratified standards, enables successful discovery of scholarly
content, products, and services.
•Partnerships: Opportunities exist for new discovery innovations across the industry, such as linked open data and cross-publisher discovery tools. »

URL : http://www.sagepub.com/repository/binaries/pdf/improvementsindiscoverability.pdf