Academic vs. biological age in research on academic careers: a large-scale study with implications for scientifically developing systems

Authors : Marek Kwiek, Wojciech Roszka

Biological age is an important sociodemographic factor in studies on academic careers (research productivity, scholarly impact, and collaboration patterns). It is assumed that the academic age, or the time elapsed from the first publication, is a good proxy for biological age.

In this study, we analyze the limitations of the proxy in academic career studies, using as an example the entire population of Polish academic scientists and scholars visible in the last decade in global science and holding at least a PhD (N = 20,569). The proxy works well for science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) disciplines; however, for non-STEMM disciplines (particularly for humanities and social sciences), it has a dramatically worse performance.

This negative conclusion is particularly important for systems that have only recently visible in global academic journals. The micro-level data suggest a delayed participation of social scientists and humanists in global science networks, with practical implications for predicting biological age from academic age.

We calculate correlation coefficients, present contingency analysis of academic career stages with academic positions and age groups, and create a linear multivariate regression model.

Our research suggests that in scientifically developing countries, academic age as a proxy for biological age should be used more cautiously than in advanced countries: ideally, it should be used only for STEMM disciplines.

URL : Academic vs. biological age in research on academic careers: a large-scale study with implications for scientifically developing systems


Results dissemination of registered clinical trials across Polish academic institutions: a cross-sectional analysis

Authors : Karolina Strzebonska, Mateusz T Wasylewski, Lucja Zaborowska, Nico Riede, Susanne Wieschowski, Daniel Strech, Marcin Waligora


To establish the rates of publication and reporting of results for interventional clinical trials across Polish academic medical centres (AMCs) completed between 2009 and 2013. We aim also to compare the publication and reporting success between adult and paediatric trials.


Cross-sectional study.


AMCs in Poland.


AMCs with interventional trials registered on

Main outcome measure

Results reporting on and publishing via journal publication.


We identified 305 interventional clinical trials registered on, completed between 2009 and 2013 and affiliated with at least one AMC. Overall, 243 of the 305 trials (79.7%) had been published as articles or posted their summary results on

Results were posted within a year of study completion and/or published within 2 years of study completion for 131 trials (43.0%). Dissemination by both posting and publishing results in a timely manner was achieved by four trials (1.3%).


Our cross-sectional analysis revealed that Polish AMCs fail to meet the expectation for timely disseminating the findings of all interventional clinical trials. Delayed dissemination and non-dissemination of trial results negatively affects decisions in healthcare.

URL : Results dissemination of registered clinical trials across Polish academic institutions: a cross-sectional analysis


(Re)Shaping Open Access Policy to Scientific Resources at Polish Technical Universities: Gdańsk University of Technology Perspective

Author : Anna Walek

Developing European Open Access policy to scientific resources is one of the most important issues undertaken during the public debate about the future trends in scholarly communication process.

The Open Access landscape is determined by several factors (e.g. mandates). The open mandate: voluntary or mandatory, can be implemented at the institutional, national or international level. It requires scholars to use open repository to deposit results of scientific research funded with public money and research grants.

The current paper reflects European Commission guidelines regarding dissemination of
scientific results funded with EU funds together with recommendations at the national level for Polish universities.

The process of preparing and implementing Open Access policy at the institutional level, and the role of libraries in this process were presented on the example of Gdańsk University of Technology in comparison to the other technical universities in Poland.

Gdańsk University of Technology implements a project called Multidisciplinary Open System Transferring Knowledge. The acronym of its name in the Polish language is “MOST Wiedzy”, which means “the bridge of knowledge”.

The repository is a project of an archive of scientific publications, scientific documentation, research data, scientific dissertations, as well as other documents and sources, created as a result of scientific experiments and other research and development work conducted at the Gdańsk University of Technology.

It will also be a solution supporting communication between researchers and a platform for cooperation between science and business.


Bibliometrics and academic staff assessment in Polish university libraries – current trends

Authors : Danuta Ryś, Anna Chadaj

Academic staff assessment in Poland is, to a large extent, based on bibliographic indicators, such as the number of scientific publications produced, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education score pertaining to the journal rank and the publication type, as well as the number of citations and derivatives.

Relevant data is retrieved from bibliographic databases developed by libraries, international citation indexes available for Polish scientific institutions under a national licence, and from open-access international and Polish sources, which are briefly presented in the article.

The workload entailed, and in consequence, the results of this citation search vary depending on the search method applied. For this reason university staff members and university authorities often seek assistance for this from the university library staff. This in return provides an opportunity for libraries to increase their role within the academic community.

In order to investigate the matter further, the authors conducted a survey among the largest academic libraries in Poland.

The findings confirm that bibliometric processes (namely, the registration and the formal acceptance of university staff scientific publications, and compilation of citation reports) have become a vital part of modern library work. Bibliographies of university staff publications developed by libraries include various bibliometric indicators (those most frequently used being identified in the article), and have become an important source of statistical and bibliometric information.

The survey results highlight the most frequently used bibliometric sources and methods. Examples of bibliographic databases created by the libraries and bibliometric indicators used within these databases are also presented.


Open Science in Poland 2014 : A Diagnosis


The process of producing and distributing scientific knowledge has been undergoing significant changes recently, termed collectively as “opening” of science. The changes were begun with the development of new technologies, but their dynamics was also influenced by the features of scholary communication and the social role of scientific research, as well as its institutional and political context. The basic aspect of Open Science is Open Access to scientific literature and data, but openness can also concern other elements of science, such
as conducting, evaluating, disseminating and using research and its findings.

The open models were initially implemented locally, as a “grassroot” movement, but with time a need arose for a more systematic approach, especially in strategies and policies of institutions responsible for research and funding, both state-owned and international bodies. In Poland such strategies and policies are yet to be developed, and the basic condition to be fulfilled is establishing a diagnosis of the current state of openness in the Polish science sector. The present report is an attempt to draw such a diagnosis.


Alternative location :

Polish network of Digital Libraries

The article presents the political context and the current status of digital libraries network in Poland. It demonstrates the major challenges in the various areas in which libraries operate, problems which should be discussed.

It describes some important library initiatives that emerged in order to coordinate activities, and presents concrete examples (WBC, KPBC, POLONA) of the actual digital collections accessible via the Internet. The author also attempts to diagnose the situation and indicate solutions, which may bring measurable benefits to Poland and Europe.