Knowledge networks and nations Global scientific collaboration in…

Knowledge, networks and nations: Global scientific collaboration in the 21st century :

“Knowledge, Networks and Nations surveys the global scientific landscape in 2011, noting the shift to an increasingly multipolar world underpinned by the rise of new scientific powers such as China, India and Brazil; as well as the emergence of scientific nations in the Middle East, South-East Asia and North Africa. The scientific world is also becoming more interconnected, with international collaboration on the rise. Over a third of all articles published in international journals are internationally collaborative, up from a quarter 15 years ago.

Collaboration is increasing for a variety of reasons. Enabling factors such as advances in communication technology and cheaper travel have played a part, but the primary driver of most collaboration is individual scientists. In seeking to work with the best of their peers and to gain access to complementary resources, equipment and knowledge, researchers fundamentally enhance the quality and improve the efficiency of their work.

Today collaboration has never been more important. With human society facing a number of wide-ranging and interlinked ‘global challenges’ such as climate change, food security, energy security and infectious disease, international scientific collaboration is essential if we are to have any chance of addressing the causes, or dealing with the impacts, of these problems. Through a few selected case studies, we examine the achievements of some of the current efforts to tackle these challenges, discuss problems they have faced, and highlight important lessons their experience has to offer similar initiatives.

Knowledge, Networks and Nations, in cooperation with Elsevier, was led by a high-level Advisory Group of leaders and experts in international science and science policy, chaired by Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith FRS, Director of Energy Research at the University of Oxford and former Director General of CERN, and drew on evidence, analysis and extensive consultation with scientists and policymakers from around the world.

It makes 5 major recommendations:

  • Support for international science should be maintained and strengthened
  • Internationally collaborative science should be encouraged, supported and facilitated
  • National and international strategies for science are required to address global challenges
  • International capacity building is crucial to ensure that the impacts of scientific research are shared globally
  • Better indicators are required in order to properly evaluate global science”


Plato and the Internet: Liberating Knowledge From Our Heads

My aim in this paper is to look at corporate knowledge engineering and see what it tells us about the philosophy of knowledge. The question I am asking is whether there is anything specific in engineering that could change our understanding of what or how we know. I am interested less in generating a theory of the relationship, rather more in raising a set of questions which I hope will stimulate a dialogue between the disciplines of knowledge and engineering.

The distinguished computer scientist Edsger Dijkstra, once said that “Computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes”, and in that spirit I want to argue that epistemology is no more about people than astronomy is about telescopes.

This paper is in five sections. To begin with, I will provide a caricature of the philosophy of knowledge. Second, I want to look at where traditional epistemology fails to connect with people’s actual problems concerning knowledge. Third, I will look at the situation in reverse and think about who – or what – is the knowing subject and what epistemology would look like if actual practical problems were its starting point. Next will come a brief digression on knowledge technologies, before some tentatively-expressed (but no less firmly held) conclusions about the relationship between engineering and philosophy.


An Overview of Online Exhibitions : “To…

An Overview of Online Exhibitions :

“To save our culture and heritage collections, online exhibitions are good conviction. Apart from saving and propagating the knowledge they play a vital role as communications link between highly valuable collections and the general public. This paper gives an overview of online exhibitions, their need, types, benefits and drawbacks. It also describes various authoring tools to create user interfaces and such online exhibitions. Some of the historical online exhibitions have also been discussed. The paper conclude that online museums have consequently reduced the distance between visitor and historical monuments and also the demand for original work has increased because of repeated exposure on World Wide Web.”