Open Access Research Via Collaborative Educational Blogging: A Case Study from Library & Information Science

Authors : Kristen Radsliff Rebmann, Camden Bernard Clark

This article charts the development of activities for online graduate students in library and information science. Project goals include helping students develop competencies in understanding open access publishing, synthesizing research in the field, and engaging in scholarly communication via collaborative educational blogging.

Using a design experiment approach as a research strategy, focus is placed on the design of the collaborative blogging activity, open access research as a knowledge domain, and analyses of four iterations of the project.

Findings from this iterative learning design suggest several benefits of implementing collaborative educational blogging activities in distance contexts.

URL : Open Access Research Via Collaborative Educational Blogging: A Case Study from Library & Information Science

Alternative location : http://openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/665

Open notebook science as an emerging epistemic culture within the Open Science movement

Authors : Anne Clinio, Sarita Albagli

The paper addresses the concepts and practices of “open notebook science” (Bradley, 2006) as an innovation within the contemporary Open Science movement. Our research points out that open notebook science is not an incremental improvement, but it is a new “literary technology” (Shapin, Shaffer, 1985) and main element of a complex open collaboration ecosystem that fosters a new epistemic culture (Knorr-Cetina, 1999).

This innovation aimed to move from a “science based on trust” to a science based on transparency and data provenance – a shift that recognizes the ability of scientists in performing experiments, but mostly, values their capacity of documenting properly what they say they have done. The theoretical framework was built with the notion of epistemic culture (Knorr-Cetina, 1999) and the “three technologies” perspective used by Shapin and Shaffer (1985) to describe the construction by natural philosophers of “matter of fact” as “variety of knowledge” so powerful that became synonymous of science itself.

Empirically, we entered the “open lab” through a netnography that led us to understand that the epistemic culture being engendered by its practitioners is based on a “matter of proof”.

URL : https://rfsic.revues.org/3186

La communication scientifique directe vers un public élargi. L’actualité sociale traitée par des chercheurs dans les carnets de recherche Hypothèses

Auteur/Author : Ingrid Mayeur

Cette contribution entend questionner un type de médiation sociale qu’autorise la communication scientifique en régime d’accès ouvert, à savoir la divulgation de connaissances en sciences humaines et sociales – ci-après SHS – auprès d’un public dépassant la seule sphère académique.

Je prendrai pour terrain d’investigation la plateforme d’édition numérique OpenEdition, et plus spécifiquement Hypothèses, espace de blogging scientifique. Il sera question d’une modalité particulière de divulgation, qui est le traitement de l’actualité par des chercheurs à travers leurs grilles de lectures disciplinaires en sciences humaines et sociales.

Dans l’exploration du corpus, je mettrai l’accent sur les modes d’appropriation du dispositif éditorial d’Hypothèses par les chercheurs qui y commentent l’actualité, les auditoires et usages que laissent entrevoir les textes, ainsi que les procédés discursifs d’ajustement mis en œuvre.

J’espère ainsi contribuer à décrire les caractéristiques de la médiation produite par cette forme de traitement de l’actualité, pour mettre en cause le caractère direct de la communication scientifique sur un carnet de recherche en ligne inscrit dans une plateforme d’édition numérique en accès ouvert.

URL : https://rfsic.revues.org/3224

La construction de la valeur économique d’une revue en chimie. Le cas du Journal of the American Chemical Society (1879-2010)

Auteur : Marianne Noel

Dans le domaine de la chimie, la facturation de l’article à l’auteur est devenue depuis quelques années la modalité principale d’open access. Le montant des frais (appelés Article Processing Charges ou APC) varie de quelques centaines à quelques milliers d’euros par article selon la revue.

Cet article propose un récit historique (1879-2010) qui suit un mécanisme méconnu antérieur à celui du paiement à l’article : la tarification à la page. Il prend pour étude de cas le Journal of the American Chemical Society-JACS, un périodique créé en 1879 par l’American Chemical Society, la plus importante société savante en chimie.

Nous proposons une chronologie en cinq périodes qui reposent sur différentes modalités de coordination marchande. Cette enquête, réalisée dans le contexte états-unien, souligne le rôle essentiel de l’État et permet d’interroger la fonction changeante de la revue dans la longue durée.

URL : https://rfsic.revues.org/3281

 

A genealogy of open access: negotiations between openness and access to research

Author : Samuel A. Moore

Open access (OA) is a contested term with a complicated history and a variety of understandings. This rich history is routinely ignored by institutional, funder and governmental policies that instead enclose the concept and promote narrow approaches to OA.

This article presents a genealogy of the term open access, focusing on the separate histories that emphasise openness and reusability on the one hand, as borrowed from the open-source software and free culture movements, and accessibility on the other hand, as represented by proponents of institutional and subject repositories.

This genealogy is further complicated by the publishing cultures that have evolved within individual communities of practice: publishing means different things to different communities and individual approaches to OA are representative of this fact.

From analysing its historical underpinnings and subsequent development, I argue that OA is best conceived as a boundary object, a term coined by Star and Griesemer (1989) to describe concepts with a shared, flexible definition between communities of practice but a more community-specific definition within them.

Boundary objects permit working relationships between communities while allowing local use and development of the concept. This means that OA is less suitable as a policy object, because boundary objects lose their use-value when ‘enclosed’ at a general level, but should instead be treated as a community-led, grassroots endeavour.

URL : https://rfsic.revues.org/3220

 

 

The rise of the middle author: Investigating collaboration and division of labor in biomedical research using partial alphabetical authorship

Authors : Philippe Mongeon, Elise Smith, Bruno Joyal, Vincent Larivière

Contemporary biomedical research is performed by increasingly large teams. Consequently, an increasingly large number of individuals are being listed as authors in the bylines, which complicates the proper attribution of credit and responsibility to individual authors.

Typically, more importance is given to the first and last authors, while it is assumed that the others (the middle authors) have made smaller contributions. However, this may not properly reflect the actual division of labor because some authors other than the first and last may have made major contributions.

In practice, research teams may differentiate the main contributors from the rest by using partial alphabetical authorship (i.e., by listing middle authors alphabetically, while maintaining a contribution-based order for more substantial contributions). In this paper, we use partial alphabetical authorship to divide the authors of all biomedical articles in the Web of Science published over the 1980–2015 period in three groups: primary authors, middle authors, and supervisory authors.

We operationalize the concept of middle author as those who are listed in alphabetical order in the middle of an authors’ list. Primary and supervisory authors are those listed before and after the alphabetical sequence, respectively.

We show that alphabetical ordering of middle authors is frequent in biomedical research, and that the prevalence of this practice is positively correlated with the number of authors in the bylines. We also find that, for articles with 7 or more authors, the average proportion of primary, middle and supervisory authors is independent of the team size, more than half of the authors being middle authors.

This suggests that growth in authors lists are not due to an increase in secondary contributions (or middle authors) but, rather, in equivalent increases of all types of roles and contributions (including many primary authors and many supervisory authors).

Nevertheless, we show that the relative contribution of alphabetically ordered middle authors to the overall production of knowledge in the biomedical field has greatly increased over the last 35 years.

URL : The rise of the middle author: Investigating collaboration and division of labor in biomedical research using partial alphabetical authorship

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184601

 

 

Effectiveness of Anonymization in Double-Blind Review

Authors : Claire Le Goues, Yuriy Brun, Sven Apel, Emery Berger, Sarfraz Khurshid, Yannis Smaragdakis

Double-blind review relies on the authors’ ability and willingness to effectively anonymize their submissions. We explore anonymization effectiveness at ASE 2016, OOPSLA 2016, and PLDI 2016 by asking reviewers if they can guess author identities.

We find that 74%-90% of reviews contain no correct guess and that reviewers who self-identify as experts on a paper’s topic are more likely to attempt to guess, but no more likely to guess correctly.

We present our findings, summarize the PC chairs’ comments about administering double-blind review, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of revealing author identities part of the way through the process, and conclude by advocating for the continued use of double-blind review.

URL : https://arxiv.org/abs/1709.01609