Evolution and Future of the Knowledge Commons Emerging…

Evolution and Future of the Knowledge Commons: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Less Developed Societies :

« This article addresses the emerging field of the knowledge commons in relation with the challenges of international development. It reviews the history of academic knowledge since the Enlightenment, its evolution and current trends, with the purpose of exploring the future of the knowledge commons. Assuming that knowledge is the most important resource in the twenty-first century, the intention of this article is mapping the conditions for taking advantage of this resource. Which are the barriers to access and use common pool of knowledge that is being generated currently? The supply and the demand sides of the knowledge sharing equation are reviewed to understand their particularities and trends. Particular attention is given to the demand side of this equation to identify the barriers that are preventing people from less developed countries taking full advantage of this fast growing resource. »

URL : http://dgroups.org/file2.axd/92ae83c6-0b31-4879-9032-d0bae8ca1683/Knowledge%20Commons%2011.08.16.docx

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Making Intellectual Property Work for Global Health …

Making Intellectual Property Work for Global Health :

« Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are often conceived narrowly from the vantage point of offering incentives for private sector investment in research and development (R&D), but the legal regime of IPRs can also work to improve access to public goods for global health, particularly for those disadvantaged by destitution and disease. The WHO Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property (GSPOA), adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2008, calls for an “enhanced and sustainable basis for needs-driven, essential health research and development relevant to diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries.” How knowledge is generated, owned, and harnessed to support pro-poor development is at the heart of this effort. New approaches to tiering, pooling, and open-source collaboration have resulted from the struggle to deliver affordable treatments for AIDS and neglected diseases. In examining how intellectual property rights can most effectively and strategically support developing countries in implementing this ambitious and potentially catalytic agenda in enabling innovation for global health, this paper seeks to outline a coherent and strategic approach to address human development needs and to facilitate the harnessing of innovation and the sharing of knowledge for global health. »

URL : http://www.harvardilj.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/HILJ-Online_53_SoSachs.pdf

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Electronic doctoral theses in the UK a sector…

Electronic doctoral theses in the UK: a sector-wide survey into policies, practice and barriers to Open Access :

« Sharing knowledge and research outputs is critical to the progress of science and human development, and a central tenet of academia. The Internet itself is a product of the academic community, and opening access to that community’s most important body of research, doctoral theses, is both a logical and an inevitable development. Progress toward open access to electronic theses has been slow in the UK. Much has been written on the perceived barriers and practical/infrastructural considerations that might explain this, but a comprehensive picture of that progress, and obstacles to it, was lacking. In 2010, a survey of policy and practice in UK HEIs was conducted by UCL (University College London) Library Services (commissioned by the Joint Information Systems Committee, JISC) to address this very issue. Incorporating inputs from 144 institutions currently awarding doctoral degrees, the work provides the first clear and detailed picture of the status of open access to doctoral research in the UK. The mission of the UK Council for Graduate Education (UKCGE) is to promote and support the interests of graduate education, and this it does through dissemination of best practice and intelligence on emergent trends; helping to shape policy and practice for the benefit of the UK HEI sector. This report contributes to that mission by bringing to the membership’s attention the results of this important work by UCL Library Services; a collaboration between UKCGE and the authors of the original work, it sets out the policies and practices that emerged from the survey and also considers what has been learned about the perceived barriers to the implementation of open access to electronic theses.

The 2010 survey has enabled, for the first time, a differentiation to be made between barriers that are “real” and those which are unfounded and/or yet to be properly validated. At the same time, the work highlights the progress made in certain critical areas, as well as those that require our greater attention. A positive picture emerges for the UK on the adoption of the electronic thesis, with the majority of HEIs surveyed expected to be providing open access to their theses in five years’ time. A more detailed picture also emerges regarding the primary reasons for requests to restrict access to theses, some of which, notably, apply only to electronic (not print) theses. This has necessarily given rise to new policy developments. There is positive evidence also of collaboration among HEIs to provide an efficient and robust service for accessing electronic theses; pooling their resources and expertise either in the development of their institutional repositories or in operating a joint service. The key driver of open access to electronic theses is the opportunity for UK HEIs to “showcase” their research outputs to the widest possible audience and enhance their impact. There are no reliable means as yet to measure this impact, but there are encouraging early indications that electronic doctoral theses attract significant attention when made openly accessible. Open access to electronic theses may therefore indeed accelerate the sharing of knowledge and the progress of scientific discovery and human development. »

URL : http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1339905/

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Open Access Digital Repository Sharing Student Research with…

Open Access Digital Repository: Sharing Student Research with the World :

« University libraries use open access digital repositories to preserve and distribute the intellectual scholarly communications of their institution. How can global accessibility of quality student work be harnessed to benefit researchers, practitioners, and educators? To address this question, we study the impact of content factors and search engine optimization factors on download rates of capstone papers. We examined all 290 MPA capstone papers at Texas State University which have been made available through an online digital repository for public consumption. Results show strong support for the impact of search engine factors on download rates. The implications of high download rates of MPA capstone papers on public administration research, practice, and education are discussed in this paper. »

URL : http://www.naspaa.org/jpaemessenger/Article/VOL18-1/jpae18_01_final.pdf

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The Rise of the Knowledge Broker Knowledge…

The Rise of the Knowledge Broker :

« Knowledge brokers are people or organizations that move knowledge around and create connections between researchers and their various audiences. This commentary reviews some of the literature on knowledge brokering and lays out some thoughts on how to analyze and theorize this practice. Discussing the invisibility and interstitiality of knowledge brokers, the author argues that social scientists need to analyze more thoroughly their practices, the brokering devices they use, and the benefits and drawbacks of their double peripherality. The author also argues that knowledge brokers do not only move knowledge, but they also produce a new kind of knowledge: brokered knowledge. »

URL : http://hal-ensmp.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00493794/fr/

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Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to…

Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results :

« Background : The widespread reluctance to share published research data is often hypothesized to be due to the authors’ fear that reanalysis may expose errors in their work or may produce conclusions that contradict their own. However, these hypotheses have not previously been studied systematically.

Methods and Findings : We related the reluctance to share research data for reanalysis to 1148 statistically significant results reported in 49 papers published in two major psychology journals. We found the reluctance to share data to be associated with weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect) and a higher prevalence of apparent errors in the reporting of statistical results. The unwillingness to share data was particularly clear when reporting errors had a bearing on statistical significance.

Conclusions : Our findings on the basis of psychological papers suggest that statistical results are particularly hard to verify when reanalysis is more likely to lead to contrasting conclusions. This highlights the importance of establishing mandatory data archiving policies. »

URL : http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0026828

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Report on Integration of Data and Publications …

Report on Integration of Data and Publications :

« Scholarly communication is the foundation of modern research where empirical evidence is interpreted and communicated as published hypothesis driven research. Many current and recent reports highlight the impact of advancing technology on modern research and consequences this has on scholarly communication. As part of the ODE project this report sought to coalesce current though and opinions from numerous and diverse sources to reveal opportunities for supporting a more connected and integrated scholarly record. Four perspectives were considered, those of the Researcher who generates or reuses primary data, Publishers who provide the mechanisms to communicate research activities and Libraries & Data enters who maintain and preserve the evidence that underpins scholarly communication and the published record. This report finds the landscape fragmented and complex where competing interests can sometimes confuse and confound requirements, needs and expectations. Equally the report identifies clear opportunity for all stakeholders to directly enable a more joined up and vital scholarly record of modern research. »

URL : http://www.libereurope.eu/sites/default/files/ODE-ReportOnIntegrationOfDataAndPublication.pdf

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Knowledge without Borders GEANT 2020 as the European…

Knowledge without Borders : GEANT 2020 as the European Communications Commons :

« The GÉANT Expert Group’s report on the 2020 Vision for European Research and Education Networking was delivered today to Neelie Kroes, European Commission Vice-President for the Digital Agenda. The report presents the experts’ views on the future of the pan-European research and education network GÉANT. It makes specific recommendations to policy makers, funding bodies and the research and education networks community for supporting and expanding knowledge communities, pushing the state-of-the-art in technology and adapting to change both from a governance and funding point of view.
The GÉANT Expert Group, chaired by Prof. Žiga Turk and composed of six other high-level European experts in different fields of policy, technology and science, was set up in 2010 with the mission to « articulate a 2020 vision for European Research and Education networking and identify an action plan for realizing this vision”. »

URL : http://www.elearningeuropa.info/fr/directory/Knowledge-without-Borders%3A-G%C3%89ANT-2020-as-the-European-Communications-Commons

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Knowledge Sharing Among Inventors Some Historical Perspectives …

Knowledge Sharing Among Inventors: Some Historical Perspectives :

« This chapter documents instances from past centuries where inventors freely shared knowledge of their innovations with other inventors. It is widely believed that such knowledge sharing is a recent development, as in Open Source Software. Our survey shows, instead, that innovators have long practiced “collective invention” at times, including inventions in such key technologies as steam engines, iron, steel, and textiles. Generally, innovator behavior was substantially richer than the heroic portrayal often found in textbooks and museums. Knowledge sharing promoted innovation, sometimes coexisting with patents, at other times, not, suggesting that policy should foster both knowledge sharing and invention incentives. »

URL : http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1944201

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OAI services in Academicians Looking Forward The…

OAI services in Academicians: Looking Forward :

« The main focus of this paper is to look the forward of Open Access Initiative (OAI) in academicians Were to be tried and perhaps implemented on a global academicians it must made known to the local audience first. This can only be achieved if the OAI services in academicians services such as ‘Information Society’. In the case of the OAI services in academicians used in the study; it has benefits directly or indirectly and eventually become more accepted. »

URL : http://eprints.rclis.org/handle/10760/16166

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