Mots-clefs: Innovation Afficher/masquer les discussions | Raccourcis clavier

  • Hans Dillaerts le 14 November 2013 à 16 h 52 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , Innovation, R&D, recherche scientifique   

    Une analyse multidimensionnelle des performances scientifiques et technologiques :

    « La recherche et l’innovation sont considérées aujourd’hui comme le moteur de la croissance économique. En Europe, rappelons que la stratégie de Lisbonne en 2000, puis la stratégie UE2020 adoptée en 2010, en se focalisant notamment sur la recherche et développement (R&D), la connaissance et l’innovation, souhaitent faire de l’Union européenne l’économie de la connaissance la plus compétitive et la plus dynamique du monde. Si l’Europe est historiquement un des leaders mondiaux en R&D, rien ne laisse préjuger de sa position future dans ce domaine : la concurrence internationale s’intensifie dans un contexte où les disparités territoriales et culturelles augmentent. Le contexte actuel de crise économique renforce les interrogations sur la capacité de l’Europe à rester parmi les leaders. L’analyse proposée vise à apporter des éléments de comparaison entre différents pays européens afin de contribuer aux débats sur les capacités scientifiques et technologiques de ces pays. Elle compare les activités de R&D des cinq plus grands pays européens (en termes de PIB) que sont l’Allemagne, la France, le Royaume-Uni, l’Italie et l’Espagne, afin d’identifier les grandes tendances et les principales différences entre ces pays. Elle rappelle également la nécessité d’associer, dans les analyses, production et visibilité des pays. Enfin, au-delà de l’analyse des indicateurs classiques, l’étude propose une approche croisée des activités de R&D. En effet, la carte ci-dessous montre qu’en comparant la Dépense intérieure de R&D (DIRD), la part des publications scientifiques et la part des brevets européens, le positionnement européen de chaque pays étudié n’est pas aussi établi que l’on pourrait quelquefois le penser. L’étude porte volontairement sur l’activité globale de chaque pays et sur son positionnement par rapport aux autres, afin de proposer une vision d’ensemble de chaque pays. Ce choix méthodologique ne permet en revanche pas de prendre en compte les caractéristiques sectorielles/thématiques propres à chacun, caractéristiques qui contribuent en partie à expliquer les différences entre pays. »

    URL : http://www.obs-ost.fr/sites/default/files/Analyses_CinqPays_oct2013.pdf

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 2 October 2013 à 18 h 46 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: Innovation,   

    Open Data as a Foundation for Innovation: The Enabling Effect of Free Public Sector Information for Entrepreneurs :

    « Public open data access has a direct impact on future IT entrepreneurs’ perception of ability to execute their business plans. Using high quality (50%–98% response rate) survey data from 138 Swedish IT-entrepreneurs, we find that access to public open data is considered very important for many IT-startups; 43% find open data essential for the realization of their business plan and 82% claim that access would support and strengthen the business plan. The survey also indicates a significant interest in, and willingness to pay for, public sector information data from companies that do not intend to commercialize data themselves but intend to use it to support or test other business models. From the survey, it is possible to infer that the previous discourse on open data, viewing it as a means for government accountability or e-government, or as the foundation for the commercialization of public sector information data is too limited. Open data should instead be seen as an enabler of innovation outside these traditional sectors. This also indicates that the previously calculated societal values of open data might be underestimated. »

    URL : http://works.bepress.com/jan_kallberg/18/

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 7 July 2013 à 18 h 53 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , Innovation, , , ,   

    Open access publishing: a catalyst for scholarly research publication :

    « Technology has been a key driving force for change and emergence of new technology has brought a revolution in disseminating and sharing of research outputs at faster speed worldwide. Open access (OA) as a means for free availability of scholarly content via the Internet has enormous benefits accrue to the OA stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to review all activities that can sensitize researchers and the scholarly community at large regarding the new publishing opportunity for dissemination of their research outputs at faster speed. The paper examines the open access OA concept, characteristics of OA and its growth. It also discusses open access models, OA benefits and copyright in digital era. Critical analysis of the rational for copyright law and fair for dealing were examined. It was inferred that OA as an accelerator for innovation, helps speedy the translation of ideas into innovative new services, products and other commercial ventures that fuel economic growth. »

    URL : http://www.idpublications.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Paper-Open-access-publishing.pdf

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 13 August 2012 à 17 h 20 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , , Innovation,   

    Access to Knowledge in India: New Research on Intellectual Property, Innovation & Development :

    « This is the third volume in our Access to Knowledge series. India is a $1 trillion economy which nevertheless struggles with a very high poverty rate and very low access to knowledge for almost seventy percent of its population which lives in rural areas.

    This volume features four parts on current issues facing intellectual property, development policy (especially rural development policy) and associated innovation, from the Indian perspective. Each chapter is authored by scholars taking an interdisciplinary approach and affiliated to Indian or American universities and Indian think-tanks. Each examines a policy area that significantly impacts access to knowledge. These include information and communications technology for development; the Indian digital divide; networking rural areas; copyright and comparative business models in music; free and open source software; patent reform and access to medicines; the role of the Indian government in promoting access to knowledge internationally and domestically. »

    URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781849665568

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 17 July 2012 à 19 h 13 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , Innovation,   

    Embracing an Innovation Stimulus Package :

    « Over the past several years, Google has partnered with a number of thought leaders to evaluate and quantify the Internet’s impact on the broader macro-economy. Our work has demonstrated that the Internet has a truly phenomenal impact on economic activity and opportunity, contributing to 21% of GDP growth across the G-20 from 2005-2010. However, since 2008 the global economy has fallen into a state of malaise. GDP growth is slowing worldwide and employment is stagnating as we enter a period some are calling “muddling through.” There is widespread recognition that neither a fiscal stimulus nor a prolonged period of austerity will truly remedy the situation. We believe there remain untapped opportunities to innovate across a range of critical macroeconomic activities by applying core characteristics of the Internet, which has been a source of such astounding innovation in the past decade. What we propose here will not be a panacea for our current economic ills, but by embracing the Innovation Stimulus Agenda we outline, we believe policymakers can move the economic needle in meaningful, positive and sustainable ways. »

    URL : http://ssrn.com/abstract=2104350

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 10 February 2012 à 14 h 21 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: Innovation, , , , , ,   

    The Future of Taxpayer-Funded Research: Who Will Control Access to the Results? :

    « This report examines the costs and benefits of increased public access, and proposals to either extend or overturn the NIH policy. It looks at increased public access to research results through the lens of “openness,” with a particular interest in how greater openness affects the progress of science, the productivity of the research enterprise, the process of innovation, the commercialization of research, and economic growth. »

    URL : http://www.ced.org/images/content/issues/innovation-technology/DCCReport_Final_2_9-12.pdf

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 30 November 2011 à 18 h 43 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: Innovation, , , , , ,   

    Costs and Benefits of Data Provision :

    « Over the last decade there has been increasing awareness of the potential benefits of more open access to Public Sector Information (PSI) and the findings of publicly funded research. That awareness is based on economic principles and evidence, and it finds expression in policy at institutional, national and international levels.

    Public Sector Information (PSI) policies seek to optimise innovation by making data available for use and re-use with minimal barriers in the form of cost or inconvenience. They place three responsibilities on publicly funded agencies: (i) to arrange stewardship and curation of their data; (ii) to make their data readily discoverable and available for use and re-use with minimal restrictions; and (iii) to forgo fees wherever practical.

    This report presents case studies exploring the costs and benefits that PSI producing agencies and their users experience in making information freely available, and preliminary estimates of the wider economic impacts of open access to PSI. In doing so, it outlines a possibly method for cost-benefit analysis at the agency level and explores the data requirements for such an analysis – recognising that few agencies will have all of the data required. »

    URL : http://ands.org.au/resource/houghton-cost-benefit-study.pdf

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 30 November 2010 à 22 h 47 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , Innovation, ,   

    Open Access: Making Science Research Accessible :

    « Even as the government makes huge investments in science and technology, research publications produced by Indian institutions are not easily available or accessible, thus undermining the visibility and ranking of these institutions. The adoption of an open access policy can close the gap between research outcomes and their dissemination. Expanding access to publicly-funded scientific research through open access has the potential to spur innovation and lead to a growth in patentable discoveries and their commercial applications. »

    URL : http://beta.epw.in/static_media/PDF/archives_pdf/2010/11/C112010_Open_Access_S_Gutam,_G_Aneeja.pdf

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 13 November 2010 à 22 h 55 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: , , Innovation,   

    The importance of open access in technology transfer for marine ornamental aquaculture: The
    case of hobbyist-led breeding initiatives
    :

    « Access to peer-reviewed literature is often restricted to a limited segment of the target audience. Barriers are in place to prevent open access of information. In the applied research science of aquaculture, these barriers have slowed progress and innovation. Here, I present a case study of how the internet and hobbyists are transforming both access and flow of information from closed circles to open dialogue within the field of marine ornamental fish rearing. This open approach is leading to innovation a rate remarkably faster and at a lower costs than could have been accomplished by traditional methods. Aquaculture societies, aquarium professionals, hobbyists, and scientists pursuing the captive production of species should embrace this movement. Whether production is for profit, conservation, or pure enjoyment, the free flow of information provides exciting new opportunities. »

    URL : http://www.bioflux.com.ro/docs/2010.3.269-272.pdf

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  • Hans Dillaerts le 11 October 2010 à 10 h 00 min Permalien
    Mots-clefs: Computational Reasoning, , Innovation, Intellectual Property Rights, , , , Software   

    Intellectual Property in Publishing and Research: Open Access in Biotechnology, Life Sciences, and Software :

    « We show some of the parallels between three sectors: (i) research, in particular research and scholarly publishing; (ii) software, and the diversity of its rights management ecosystem; and (iii) biotechnology, with its restricted intellectual property ecosystem and declining levels of innovation. A core aspect of the research process is to be found in scholarly publishing. Some of the most advanced forms of scholarly, research publishing, relating to publishing practices including citation, are evident in biotechnology and the life sciences. Motivation for Open Access, for example, is far and away the
    most pronounced in the life sciences. We look at how this ties in with the evolution of the management, generally, of intellectual property. Computing, with its basis in computational reasoning, can and should play a central role in this evolution. In fact we can already discern a future view of pharmaceuticals as a new form of software. »

    URL : http://www.cepis.org/media/upenet.IV.20101.pdf

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