Une analyse multidimensionnelle des performances scientifiques et technologiques :
« La recherche et l’innovation sont considérées aujourd’hui comme le moteur de la croissance économique. En Europe, rappelons que la stratégie de Lisbonne en 2000, puis la stratégie UE2020 adoptée en 2010, en se focalisant notamment sur la recherche et développement (R&D), la connaissance et l’innovation, souhaitent faire de l’Union européenne l’économie de la connaissance la plus compétitive et la plus dynamique du monde. Si l’Europe est historiquement un des leaders mondiaux en R&D, rien ne laisse préjuger de sa position future dans ce domaine : la concurrence internationale s’intensifie dans un contexte où les disparités territoriales et culturelles augmentent. Le contexte actuel de crise économique renforce les interrogations sur la capacité de l’Europe à rester parmi les leaders. L’analyse proposée vise à apporter des éléments de comparaison entre différents pays européens afin de contribuer aux débats sur les capacités scientifiques et technologiques de ces pays. Elle compare les activités de R&D des cinq plus grands pays européens (en termes de PIB) que sont l’Allemagne, la France, le Royaume-Uni, l’Italie et l’Espagne, afin d’identifier les grandes tendances et les principales différences entre ces pays. Elle rappelle également la nécessité d’associer, dans les analyses, production et visibilité des pays. Enfin, au-delà de l’analyse des indicateurs classiques, l’étude propose une approche croisée des activités de R&D. En effet, la carte ci-dessous montre qu’en comparant la Dépense intérieure de R&D (DIRD), la part des publications scientifiques et la part des brevets européens, le positionnement européen de chaque pays étudié n’est pas aussi établi que l’on pourrait quelquefois le penser. L’étude porte volontairement sur l’activité globale de chaque pays et sur son positionnement par rapport aux autres, afin de proposer une vision d’ensemble de chaque pays. Ce choix méthodologique ne permet en revanche pas de prendre en compte les caractéristiques sectorielles/thématiques propres à chacun, caractéristiques qui contribuent en partie à expliquer les différences entre pays. »
URL : http://www.obs-ost.fr/sites/default/files/Analyses_CinqPays_oct2013.pdf
Open Data as a Foundation for Innovation: The Enabling Effect of Free Public Sector Information for Entrepreneurs :
« Public open data access has a direct impact on future IT entrepreneurs’ perception of ability to execute their business plans. Using high quality (50%–98% response rate) survey data from 138 Swedish IT-entrepreneurs, we find that access to public open data is considered very important for many IT-startups; 43% find open data essential for the realization of their business plan and 82% claim that access would support and strengthen the business plan. The survey also indicates a significant interest in, and willingness to pay for, public sector information data from companies that do not intend to commercialize data themselves but intend to use it to support or test other business models. From the survey, it is possible to infer that the previous discourse on open data, viewing it as a means for government accountability or e-government, or as the foundation for the commercialization of public sector information data is too limited. Open data should instead be seen as an enabler of innovation outside these traditional sectors. This also indicates that the previously calculated societal values of open data might be underestimated. »
URL : http://works.bepress.com/jan_kallberg/18/
Open access publishing: a catalyst for scholarly research publication :
« Technology has been a key driving force for change and emergence of new technology has brought a revolution in disseminating and sharing of research outputs at faster speed worldwide. Open access (OA) as a means for free availability of scholarly content via the Internet has enormous benefits accrue to the OA stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to review all activities that can sensitize researchers and the scholarly community at large regarding the new publishing opportunity for dissemination of their research outputs at faster speed. The paper examines the open access OA concept, characteristics of OA and its growth. It also discusses open access models, OA benefits and copyright in digital era. Critical analysis of the rational for copyright law and fair for dealing were examined. It was inferred that OA as an accelerator for innovation, helps speedy the translation of ideas into innovative new services, products and other commercial ventures that fuel economic growth. »
URL : http://www.idpublications.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Paper-Open-access-publishing.pdf
Access to Knowledge in India: New Research on Intellectual Property, Innovation & Development :
« This is the third volume in our Access to Knowledge series. India is a $1 trillion economy which nevertheless struggles with a very high poverty rate and very low access to knowledge for almost seventy percent of its population which lives in rural areas.
This volume features four parts on current issues facing intellectual property, development policy (especially rural development policy) and associated innovation, from the Indian perspective. Each chapter is authored by scholars taking an interdisciplinary approach and affiliated to Indian or American universities and Indian think-tanks. Each examines a policy area that significantly impacts access to knowledge. These include information and communications technology for development; the Indian digital divide; networking rural areas; copyright and comparative business models in music; free and open source software; patent reform and access to medicines; the role of the Indian government in promoting access to knowledge internationally and domestically. »
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781849665568
Embracing an Innovation Stimulus Package :
« Over the past several years, Google has partnered with a number of thought leaders to evaluate and quantify the Internet’s impact on the broader macro-economy. Our work has demonstrated that the Internet has a truly phenomenal impact on economic activity and opportunity, contributing to 21% of GDP growth across the G-20 from 2005-2010. However, since 2008 the global economy has fallen into a state of malaise. GDP growth is slowing worldwide and employment is stagnating as we enter a period some are calling “muddling through.” There is widespread recognition that neither a fiscal stimulus nor a prolonged period of austerity will truly remedy the situation. We believe there remain untapped opportunities to innovate across a range of critical macroeconomic activities by applying core characteristics of the Internet, which has been a source of such astounding innovation in the past decade. What we propose here will not be a panacea for our current economic ills, but by embracing the Innovation Stimulus Agenda we outline, we believe policymakers can move the economic needle in meaningful, positive and sustainable ways. »
URL : http://ssrn.com/abstract=2104350
This report examines the costs and benefits of increased public access, and proposals to either extend or overturn the NIH policy. It looks at increased public access to research results through the lens of “openness,” with a particular interest in how greater openness affects the progress of science, the productivity of the research enterprise, the process of innovation, the commercialization of research, and economic growth.
URL : http://www.ced.org/images/content/issues/innovation-technology/DCCReport_Final_2_9-12.pdf
Costs and Benefits of Data Provision :
« Over the last decade there has been increasing awareness of the potential benefits of more open access to Public Sector Information (PSI) and the findings of publicly funded research. That awareness is based on economic principles and evidence, and it finds expression in policy at institutional, national and international levels.
Public Sector Information (PSI) policies seek to optimise innovation by making data available for use and re-use with minimal barriers in the form of cost or inconvenience. They place three responsibilities on publicly funded agencies: (i) to arrange stewardship and curation of their data; (ii) to make their data readily discoverable and available for use and re-use with minimal restrictions; and (iii) to forgo fees wherever practical.
This report presents case studies exploring the costs and benefits that PSI producing agencies and their users experience in making information freely available, and preliminary estimates of the wider economic impacts of open access to PSI. In doing so, it outlines a possibly method for cost-benefit analysis at the agency level and explores the data requirements for such an analysis – recognising that few agencies will have all of the data required. »
URL : http://ands.org.au/resource/houghton-cost-benefit-study.pdf