« As open-access (OA) publishing funded by article-processing charges (APCs) becomes more widely accepted, academic institutions need to be aware of the “total cost of publication” (TCP), comprising subscription costs plus APCs and additional administration costs. This study analyzes data from 23 UK institutions covering the period 2007–2014 modeling the TCP. It shows a clear rise in centrally managed APC payments from 2012 onward, with payments projected to increase further. As well as evidencing the growing availability and acceptance of OA publishing, these trends reflect particular UK policy developments and funding arrangements intended to accelerate the move toward OA publishing (“Gold” OA). Although the mean value of APCs has been relatively stable, there was considerable variation in APC prices paid by institutions since 2007. In particular, “hybrid” subscription/OA journals were consistently more expensive than fully OA journals. Most APCs were paid to large “traditional” commercial publishers who also received considerable subscription income. New administrative costs reported by institutions varied considerably. The total cost of publication modeling shows that APCs are now a significant part of the TCP for academic institutions, in 2013 already constituting an average of 10% of the TCP (excluding administrative costs). »
Advancing the Business of Information Open Access: Market Size, Share, Forecast, and Trends :
« No debate has shaken scientific publishing in the past 20 years quite like the open access movement. Awareness has risen in the popular press, in the UK’s House of Commons, in funding bodies, and in places of research. Underlying the debate is the decades-long concern about the publishing model of peer-review processes, their fairness and their impact on the flow of research, knowledge, and discovery in society. The open access movement continues to morph as it challenges traditional modes of scholarly publishing and changes the way most major players in the space approach their futures. In this report, which is an update to Outsell’s An Open Access Primer – Market Size and Trends (published September 21, 2009), we analyze the market’s size in terms of revenue, examine both gold and hybrid journals, consider the future of green OA, and present a revenue forecast for open access-sourced journal revenue for 2013 to 2015. To underpin our projections, we provide analysis of which competitors control significant shares of the market — and which new entrants are particularly on trend and worth watching. Open access publishing is here to stay, but its evolution and ability to overtake existing subscription models remains an open question. Outsell’s goal is to cut through the noise and provide insights that support healthy and forward-looking business strategies for all stakeholders in this space — including publishers, policymakers, funders, authors and researchers, technology providers, and investors. »
« This report describes and draws conclusions from the transition of the Association for Learning Technology’s journal Research in Learning Technology from toll-access to Open Access, and from being published by one of the « big five » commercial publishers to being published by a specialist Open Access publisher. The focus of the report is on what happened in the run-up to and after the transition, rather than on the process of deciding to switch between publishing models, which is covered in in ALT’s 2011 report « Journal tendering for societies: a brief guide » – http://repository.alt.ac.uk/887/ . »
« The year 2012 heralded significant developments in open access (OA) that impacted the relationships between the major stakeholders in scholarly publishing: researchers, funders, publishers and governments. In the UK, the clear preference for a gold OA policy enunciated by the government-backed ‘Finch Report’ is now being implemented by the research councils. Although the policy has been modified to include green routes to OA publishing, arguments continue about the optimal route to a system of open access that can work on a global scale. Resolution of these disputes will require courage and imagination. »
Exploring the Effects of a Transition to Open Access: Insights from a Simulation Study :
« The Open Access (OA) movement, which postulates gratis and unrestricted online access to publicly funded research findings, has significantly gained momentum in recent years. The two ways of achieving OA are self-archiving of scientific work by the authors (Green OA) and publishing in OA journals (Gold OA). But there is still no consensus which model should be supported in particular. The aim of this simulation study is to discover mechanisms and predict developments that may lead to specific outcomes of possible market transformation scenarios. It contributes to theories related to OA by substantiating the argument of a citation advantage of OA articles and by visualizing the mechanisms of a journal system collapsing in the long-term due to the continuation of the serials crisis. The practical contribution of this research stems from the integration of all market players: Decisions regarding potential financial support of OA models can be aligned with our findings – as well as the decision of a publisher to migrate his journals to Gold OA. Our results indicate that for scholarly communication in general, a transition to Green OA combined with a certain level of subscription-based publishing and a migration of few top journals is the most beneficial development. »
« Open access publishing has been proposed as one possible solution to the serials crisis – the rapidly growing subscription prices in scholarly journal publishing. However, open access publishing can present economic pitfalls as well, such as excessive publication charges. We discuss the decision that an author faces when choosing to submit to an open access journal. We develop an interactive tool to help authors compare among alternative open access venues and thereby get the most for their publication fees. »
Libre accès à la communication scientifique et contexte français : prospective, développement et enjeux pour la créativité et l’interdisciplinarité ? :
« Dans le cadre du développement international du mouvement du libre accès aux publications scientifiques, cette thèse analyse plus précisément la situation française dans le contexte européen. Cette analyse a été menée à travers une démarche de recherche-action, au sein d’un groupe d’acteurs du Groupement français des industries de l’information (GFII) concernés par le libre accès.Nous cherchons tout d’abord à mettre en évidence les forces motrices du développement du libre accès en nous appuyant sur une méthodologie prospective développée au LIPSOR/CNAM.Les résultats nous ont conduit à contribuer à la conception d’un site d’information dont la finalité est l’affichage des politiques des éditeurs nationaux en matière d’auto-archivage afin d’accompagner les pratiques de dépôts au niveau national. L’analyse prospective a en effet révélé l’importance des embargos pour les équilibres financiers des éditeurs.De façon plus distanciée, nous amorçons également une réflexion sur l’impact réel du libre accès sur deux moteurs semblant jouer un rôle croissant dans l’économie de la connaissance, à savoir la créativité et l’interdisciplinarité. »
« Within the framework of the international development of open access to scientific publications, this thesis analyses more precisely the French situation in the European context. This analysis was carried out through a process of action research within a group of actors of the French Professional Group for B to B Information and Knowledge (GFII) who are concerned by open access.At first, we seek to highlight the driving forces behind the development of open access by relying on a method of prospective developed by LIPSOR/ CNAM.The results led us to contribute to the design of an information website whose purpose is to display the national publisher policies on self-archiving practices in order to support the development of new deposit practices at the national level. The prospective analysis has indeed revealed the importance of embargo periods for the financial balances of the publishers.By adopting a more distanced point of view, we initiate a new reflection about the real impact of open access on two important driving forces which seem to play an increasing role in the knowledge economy, namely creativity and interdisciplinarity. »
Le libre accès en France en 2012: Entre immobilisme et innovation :
« Pour faire l’état des lieux du libre accès (LA) en France en 2012, dix ans après la Budapest Open Access Initiative, nous avons examiné les deux voies : la voie verte (l’auto-archivage) et la voie dorée (publications dans les revues en LA). L’archive centrale multidisciplinaire HAL, créée en 2002 pour recevoir les publications scientifiques au niveau national, est reconnue pour sa qualité technique, mais elle ne propose que 10% à 15 % de la production scientifique annuelle française. Ce chiffre est à l’image de ce qu’offrent toutes les autres archives dans le monde où il n’y a pas d’obligation de déposer (pas de mandat). Les archives qui ont un mandat comme celle de l’université de Liège, ont atteint un taux de 80% en deux ans. Quelques archives institutionnelles se sont développées en France parallèlement à HAL, et deux d’entre elles (Archimer and OATAO) ont un bon taux de remplissage, grâce à l’implication d’un personnel dédié. Pour soutenir les offres éditoriales en libre accès le Centre pour l’Édition électronique Ouverte (CLEO) a récemment mis en place OpenEdition Freemium. Cette initiative pourrait favoriser le développement des revues en LA. Cependant, l’étude faite à partir des revues qualifiantes en Sciences Humaines et Sociales montre que les chercheurs sont peu encouragés à publier dans ces revues par les instances d’évaluation : peu de revues en libre accès françaises sont présentes dans les listes des revues qualifiantes de l’agence d’évaluation de la recherche et de l’enseignement supérieur (AERES). On note aussi une forte disparité entre les disciplines. Différents exemples de politique en faveur du libre accès sont donnés : un politique forte peut être menée par des universités, comme à l’université de Liège, ou par des bailleurs de fonds, comme le FRS-FNRS en Belgique ou par l’Europe. Elle peut être entreprise au niveau législatif comme aux USA, au Brésil ou en Argentine. En France les deux voies du libre accès sont tracées par des initiatives intéressantes. Le gouvernement français devrait accompagner ces initiatives et devrait s’investir dans une politique forte pour recevoir rapidement les bénéfices du libre accès. »
« Ten years after the Budapest Open Access Initiative, we have examined the current situation of Open Access in France via the two open access (OA) roads: the Green (self-archiving) and the Gold (OA publishing). HAL, a central multidisciplinary French archive launched in 2002, is recognized for its technical quality, but 10 years after its creation it only includes 10 to 15% of the annual French scientific output. This figure is similar to other repositories worldwide for which there is no mandatory policy (no mandate). On the other hand, archives such as that of Liège University which has a mandate, achieved an 80% deposit rate within two years. Other than HAL, a number of institutional archives are being developed in France, with Archimer and OATAO being two successful examples, thanks to dedicated library staff. In order to support the editorial offer in open access the Centre pour l’Édition électronique Ouverte (CLEO) recently launched the Open Edition Freemium. This initiative should favor the development of OA periodicals. However, the study based on the list of qualifying periodicals in Human and Social Sciences, shows that researchers are not encouraged to publish in these periodicals by national assessment bodies; very few French open access periodicals are on the different qualifying lists of the agence d’évaluation de la recherche et de l’enseignement supérieur (AERES – French research and higher education assessment agency). In addition, a wide disparity can be observed between disciplines. Different examples of strong policies in favor of OA are given: at the university level, as at Liège university, at the level of foundations, as at FRS-FNRS in Belgium, at the level of the Europe or at the legislative level, as attempted in the USA or Brazil or Argentina. In France the two roads are supported by interesting initiatives and these should be accompanied by strong French government policy to enable the benefits of open access to be rapidly reaped. »
Planting the green seeds for a golden harvest: Comments and clarifications on “Going for Gold” :
« The economic modelling work we have carried out over the past few years has been referred to and cited a number of times in the discussions of the Finch report and subsequent policy developments in the UK. We are concerned that there may be some misinterpretation of this work. This short paper sets out the main conclusions of our work, which was designed to explore the overall costs and benefits of Open Access (OA), as well as identify the most cost-effective policy basis for transitioning to OA at national and institutional levels.
The main findings are that disseminating research results via OA would be more cost-effective than subscription publishing. If OA were adopted worldwide, the net benefits of Gold OA would exceed those of Green OA. However, we are not in an OA world, nor are we likely to be in such a world in the foreseeable future.
At the institutional level, during a transitional period when subscriptions are maintained, the cost of unilaterally adopting Green OA is much lower than the cost of Gold OA – with Green OA self-archiving costing average institutions sampled around one-fifth the amount that Gold OA might cost, and as little as one-tenth as much for the most research intensive university.
Hence, we conclude that the most affordable and cost-effective means of moving towards OA is through Green OA, which can be adopted unilaterally at the funder, institutional, sectoral and national levels at relatively little cost. »
Green and Gold Open Access Percentages and Growth, by Discipline :
« Most refereed journal articles today are published in subscription journals, accessible only to subscribing institutions, hence losing considerable research impact. Making articles freely accessible online (« Open Access, » OA) maximizes their impact. Articles can be made OA in two ways: by self-archiving them on the web (“Green OA”) or by publishing them in OA journals (“Gold OA”). We compared the percent and growth rate of Green and Gold OA for 14 disciplines in two random samples of 1300 articles per discipline out of the 12,500 journals indexed by Thomson-Reuters-ISI using a robot that trawled the web for OA full-texts. We sampled in 2009 and 2011 for publication year ranges 1998-2006 and 2005-2010, respectively. Green OA (21.4%) exceeds Gold OA (2.4%) in proportion and growth rate in all but the biomedical disciplines, probably because it can be provided for all journals articles and does not require paying extra Gold OA publication fees. The spontaneous overall OA growth rate is still very slow (about 1% per year). If institutions make Green OA self-archiving mandatory, however, it triples percent Green OA as well as accelerating its growth rate. »