« In this post-digital age, digital technology is no longer a revolutionary phenomenon but a normal part of everyday life. The mutation of music and film into bits and bytes, downloads and streams is now taken for granted. For the world of book and magazine publishing however, this transformation has only just begun.
Still, the vision of this transformation is far from new. For more than a century now, avant-garde artists, activists and technologists have been anticipating the development of networked and electronic publishing. Although in hindsight the reports of the death of paper greatly exaggerated, electronic publishing has now certainly become a reality. How will the analog and the digital coexist in the post-digital age of publishing? How will they transition, mix and cross over?
In this book, Alessandro Ludovico re-reads the history of media technology, cultural activism and the avantgarde arts as a prehistory of cutting through the so-called dichotomy between paper and electronics. Ludovico is the editor and publisher of Neural, a magazine for criticaldigital culture and media arts. For more than twenty years now, he has been working at the cutting edge (and the outer fringes) of both print publishing and politically engaged digital art. »
When press is not printed : the challenge of collecting digital newspapers at the Bibliothèque nationale de France :
« Since its birth in the early seventeenth century, the press has played a prominent role in the political and social life of France. Over the two last decades, the economic and even cultural pillars on which the press ecosystem is built has been challenged by the growing use of digital technologies, and by the increasing role of the Internet as a way to distribute and access information. Heritage libraries need to address the accelerating shift from analogue to digital in order to maintain the continuity of their objectives and of their missions. Many aspects need to be taken into account: legal, scientific, technical, economic and organizational issues have to be identified and addressed. This paper looks at the example of the National Library of France (Bibliothèque nationale de France or BnF), and at the way it has dealt with collecting newspapers in digital form. During the ten last years, the BnF has launched several experiments, testing different approaches, with varying degrees of success: – Direct deposit of electronic publications on physical media (CDs and DVDs) or through FTP. – Fully automated web harvesting. Since December 2010, almost 100 news websites (national and daily newspapers, pure players, news portals…) are collected on a daily basis. -Web harvesting through agreements with producers. »
Publication numérique dans l’édition scientifique. Le cas des Presses universitaires du Septentrion :
« Le marché du livre numérique a été lancé fin 2007 aux États‐Unis. Peu à peu, la production puis la vente de tels fichiers se sont également développées en France où, en 2012, de nombreux éditeurs privés proposent un important catalogue de livres numériques. L’édition scientifique est également en train d’intégrer cette publication numérique déjà bien avancée dans le domaine des revues. Ce sont désormais les presses universitaires qui se mettent à l’édition électronique des ouvrages. En 2012, les Presses universitaires du Septentrion ont accueilli une nouvelle chaîne d’édition intégrant la production de livres numériques. Les techniques de production ainsi que l’environnement de cet éditeur sont donc amenés à changer, notamment au niveau des relations avec ses différents acteurs traditionnels : les auteurs, distributeurs, diffuseurs mais également les lecteurs. Grâce à un partenariat entre institutions, le livre numérique dans l’édition scientifique française est basé sur la normalisation et l’interopérabilité. »
« The digital book market was launched in late 2007 in the United States. Gradually, production and selling of such files also developed in France where, in 2012, many private publishers offer an extensive catalog of digital books. Scientific publishing is also in the process of integrating this digital publication already well advanced in the field of journals. University presses are nowadays starting to publish electronic books. In 2012, the Septentrion University Press has welcomed a new publishing chain integrating digital books production. This editor’s production techniques and environment are likely to change, especially in terms of relations with its traditional actors: authors, distributors, broadcasters but also the readers. Through a partnership between institutions, the digital book in French scientific publishing is based on standardization and interoperability. »
Examining Motivations behind Paper Usage in Academia :
« We carried out a qualitative study to identify the “missing pieces” in current computing devices and technologies that are preventing people from eliminating paper from their lives. Most of the existing literature has looked into the work practices of businesses, while a few have researched how high school and college students and teaching assistants at universities work with paper. We were specifically interested in analyzing paper use for people in the research side of academia, and seeing how our results compare to existing work. We recruited and interviewed participants from academia to understand what kind of tasks they use paper for, what kind of tasks they use computing devices for and what motivates them to use these two media. We found that, despite having access to at least one personal computing device, the participants preferred to work with paper in many situations. This appears to be attributed to certain intrinsic qualities that paper has, such as open format, easy navigation, readability, and the affordances these qualities provide. In order to eventually replace paper with devices, designers of new technology will have to successfully emulate these qualities. »
« E-resources have exploded in popularity and usage by helping users in retrieving accurate, relevant and timelyinformation as and when required for their learning and research needs. This case study was carried out at the University of Colombo to investigate the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) on e-resources usage of postgraduates. A questionnaire basedsurvey was carried out using 302 postgraduates belonging to seven faculties. Exploratory factor analysis with Verimaxrotation was employed to identify the CSFs on e-resource usage and multiple regression analysis was carried out todetermine the relationship of those identified factors with overall e-resource usage. Factor analysis identified nine factorswhich affect on e-resources usage. Among the nine factors, postgraduates identified “Technology” as the most critical factorin using e-resources. Library support, information literacy, computer competency, usefulness and user attitudes areidentified as other CSFs for using e-resources for their learning activities. »
The Digital Public Domain: Foundations for an Open Culture :
« This book brings together essays by academics, librarians, entrepreneurs, activists and policy makers, who were all part of the EU-funded Communia project. Together the authors argue that the Public Domain — that is, the informational works owned by all of us, be that literature, music, the output of scientific research, educational material or public sector information — is fundamental to a healthy society.
The essays range from more theoretical papers on the history of copyright and the Public Domain, to practical examples and case studies of recent projects that have engaged with the principles of Open Access and Creative Commons licensing. The book is essential reading for anyone interested in the current debate about copyright and the Internet. It opens up discussion and offers practical solutions to the difficult question of the regulation of culture at the digital age. »
Use of ICT Based Electronic Resources in selected Central Universities of India :
« The paper divulge in the increasing use of electronic resources and the widening acceptance of the same among academic library patrons. Reaffirms the necessity of making the end users aware of the e-resources based services offered by the libraries. Conducts a cursory examination of the web design of the university libraries. Finally, attempts to identify ways to maximise the use of e-resources by taking into consideration 18 central university libraries. »
Preservation Status Of E-Resources: A Potential Crisis In Electronic Journal Preservation :
« E-journals have replaced the majority of titles formerly produced in paper format. Academic libraries are increasingly dependent on commercially produced, born-digital content that is purchased or licensed. The purpose of this presentation is to share the findings of a 2CUL study that assesses the role of LOCKSS and PORTICO in preserving each institution’s e-journal collections. The 2CUL initiative is a collaboration between Columbia University Library (CUL) and Cornell University Library (CUL) to join forces in providing content, expertise, and services that are impossible to accomplish acting alone.
Although LOCKSS is considered a successful digital preservation initiative, neither of the CULs felt that they fully understood the potential of the system for their own settings and collections. In support of this goal, a joint team was established in November 2010 to investigate various questions to assess how LOCKSS is being deployed and the implications of local practices for both CUL’s preservation frameworks. This study was seen as a high-level investigation to characterize the general landscape and identify further research questions. One of the practical outcomes was a comparative analysis of Portico and LOCKSS preservation coverage for Columbia and Cornell’s serial holdings. A key finding was that only 15-20% of the e-journal titles in the libraries’ collections are currently preserved by these two initiatives. Further analysis suggests the remaining titles fall into roughly 10 categories, with a variety of strategies needed to ensure their preservation. »
From Stacks to the Web: the Transformation of Academic Library Collecting :
« The existence of a ubiquitous and cheap worldwide communication’s network that increasingly makes documents easily and freely available will require a transformation of academic library collecting practice. It will be driven by a number of specific developments including: the digitization of content; the development of print repositories; the development of e-readers and print-on-demand publishing; the growth of open access; challenges to establish academic publishing organizations; and the growth of new forms of scholarship based on openness and social productivity. If academic libraries are to be successful, they will need to: deconstruct legacy print collections; move from item-by-item book selection to purchase-on-demand and subscriptions; manage the transition to open access journals; focus on curating unique items; and develop new mechanisms for funding national infrastructure »