Auteur/Author : Stéphane Couture
Cet article aborde les formes de contrôle des biens communs par des entreprises commerciales en étudiant le cas des logiciels libres. Les logiciels libres sont des logiciels dont le code source est librement accessible, et peut être modifié et partagé.
Cette éthique de partage a permis l’émergence d’un modèle collaboratif souvent présenté comme l’exemple type des « communs numériques ». Cependant, de plus en plus d’entreprises participent aujourd’hui au développement des logiciels libres.
Si plusieurs analystes voient d’un bon œil cette contribution commerciale, d’autres font ressortir les formes de contrôle que ces entreprises mettent en place pour tirer profit des communs en logiciels libres.
En recensant différentes études sur ces questions et en analysant plus précisément les cas de Symfony et de Redhat, deux logiciels libres fortement développés par des entreprises commerciales, le présent article s’attarde sur ces formes de contrôle des communs numériques et en fait ressortir les conséquences éthiques.
URL : https://ethiquepublique.revues.org/2275
The Importance of Free and Open Source Software and Open Standards in Modern Scientific Publishing :
« In this paper we outline the reasons why we believe a reliance on the use of proprietary computer software and proprietary file formats in scientific publication have negative implications for the conduct and reporting of science. There is increasing awareness and interest in the scientific community about the benefits offered by free and open source software. We discuss the present state of scientific publishing and the merits of advocating for a wider adoption of open standards in science, particularly where it concerns the publishing process. »
URL : http://www.mdpi.com/2304-6775/1/2/49
Open Source Software for Creation of Digital Library: A Comparative Study of Greenstone Digital Library Software & DSpace :
« Softwares now-a-days have become the life line of modern day organizations. Organizations cannot think of doing their tasks effectively and efficiently without softwares. The extremely competitive environment, zero deficiency and enhanced productivity has made it mandatory for the organizations to carefully choose the appropriate software after comprehensive needs assessment. Softwares simply their tasks and saves a lot of precious time which can be utilized in managing other important issues. Libraries also need softwares if they want to create a parallel digital library with features which we may not find in a traditional library. There are several open source softwares available to create a digital library. For this, firstly the library professionals should be aware of the advantages of open source software and should involve in their development. They should have basic knowledge about the selection, installation and maintenance. Open source software requires a greater degree of computing responsibility than commercial software. Digitization involves huge money to create and maintain and the OSS appears to be a means to reduce it. Among these, DSpace and Greenstone are becoming more popular in India and abroad. This paper deals with the comparison of these two popular OSS from various points of view. The comparative table may help the professionals who are planning to create a digital library. »
URL : http://eprints.rclis.org/19924/
The case for open computer programs :
« Scientific communication relies on evidence that cannot be entirely included in publications, but the rise of computational science has added a new layer of inaccessibility. Although it is now accepted that data should be made available on request, the current regulations regarding the availability of software are inconsistent. We argue that, with some exceptions, anything less than the release of source programs is intolerable for results that depend on computation. The vagaries of hardware, software and natural language will always ensure that exact reproducibility remains uncertain, but withholding code increases the chances that efforts to reproduce results will fail. »
URL : http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7386/full/nature10836.html
Curation Micro-Services: A Pipeline Metaphor for Repositories :
« The effective long-term curation of digital content requires expert analysis, policy setting, and decision making, and a robust technical infrastructure that can effect and enforce curation policies and implement appropriate curation activities. Since the number, size, and diversity of content under curation management will undoubtedly continue to grow over time, and the state of curation understanding and best practices relative to that content will undergo a similar constant evolution, one of the overarching design goals of a sustainable curation infrastructure is flexibility. In order to provide the necessary flexibility of deployment and configuration in the face of potentially disruptive changes in technology, institutional mission, and user expectation, a useful design metaphor is provided by the Unix pipeline, in which complex behavior is an emergent property of the coordinated action of a number of simple independent components. The decomposition of repository function into a highly granular and orthogonal set of independent but interoperable micro-services is consistent with the principles of prudent engineering practice. Since each micro-service is small and self-contained, they are individually more robust and collectively easier to implement and maintain. By being freely interoperable in various strategic combinations, any number of micro-services-based repositories can be easily constructed to meet specific administrative or technical needs. Importantly, since these repositories are purposefully built from policy neutral and protocol and platform independent components to provide the function minimally necessary for a specific context, they are not constrained to conform to an infrastructural monoculture of prepackaged repository solutions. The University of California Curation Center has developed an open source micro-services infrastructure that is being used to manage the diverse digital collections of the ten campus University system and a number of non-university content partners. This paper provides a review of the conceptual design and technical implementation of this micro-services environment, a case study of initial deployment, and a look at ongoing micro-services developments. »
URL : http://journals.tdl.org/jodi/article/view/1605
Les SIGB libres : opportunités d’innovations pour les bibliothèques :
« Since 10 years, more and more libraries are choosing an Free and Open Source Integrated Library management System (ILS). We see that their evolution is very fast and the collaborative development fosters the emergence of innovative features for libraries and their users. The innovation is as much about free ILS unique features as on the possibility of developing an ILS in collaboration with other libraries. The establishment of a collaborative structure enables the rapid development of innovations. We present our observations on the innovative aspects of Free and Open Source ILS, especially with Koha. Libraries have to take advantage of opportunities for innovation offered by Free and Open Source ILS. »
URL : http://eprints.rclis.org/handle/10760/15396
How to choose an free and open source integrated library system:
« Purpose : This paper seeks to present the results of an analysis of 20 free and open source ILS platforms offered to the library community. These software platforms were subjected to a three-step analysis, whereby the results aim to assist librarians and decision makers in selecting an open source ILS, based on objective criteria.
Design/methodology/approach : The methodology applied involves three broad steps. The first step consists of evaluating all the available ILSs and keeping only those that qualify as truly open source or freely-licensed software. During this step, the correlation between the practices within the community and the terms associated with the free or open software license was measured. The second step involves evaluating the community behind each open source or free ILS project, according to a set of 40 criteria in order to determine the attractiveness and sustainability of each project. The third step entails subjecting the remaining ILSs to an analysis of almost 800 functions and features to determine which ILSs are most suited to the needs of libraries. The final score is used to identify strengths, weaknesses and differentiating or similar features of each ILS.
Findings : More than 20 open source ILSs were submitted to this methodology, but only three passed all the steps: Evergreen, Koha, and PMB. The main goal is not to identify the best open source ILS, but rather to highlight from which, of the batch of dozens of open source ILSs, librarians and decision makers can choose without worrying about how perennial or sustainable each open or free project is, as well as understanding which ILS provides them with the functionalities to meet the needs of their institutions.
Practical implications : This paper offers a basic model so that librarians and decision makers can make their own analysis and adapt it to the needs of their libraries.
Originality/value: This methodology meets the best practices in technology selection, with a multiple criteria decision analysis. It can also be easily adapted to the needs of all libraries. »
URL : http://eprints.rclis.org/handle/10760/15387